ACSection: User Commands (1)
Updated: 1995 October 31
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NAMEac - print statistics about users' connect time
[ -p | --individual-totals ] [ people ]
[ -f | --file filename ] [ -a | --all-days ]
[ --complain ] [ --reboots ] [ --supplants ]
[ --timewarps ] [ --compatibility ]
[ --tw-leniency num ] [ --tw-suspicious num ]
[ -z | --print-zeros ] [ --debug ]
[ -V | --version ] [ -h | --help ]
ac prints out a report of connect time (in hours) based on the logins/logouts in the current wtmp file. A total is also printed out.
The accounting file wtmp is maintained by init(8) and login(1). Neither ac nor login creates the wtmp if it doesn't exist, no accounting is done. To begin accounting, create the file with a length of zero.
NOTE: The wtmp file can get really big, really fast. You might want to trim it every once and a while.
GNU ac works nearly the same u*x ac, though it's a little smarter in several ways. You should therefore expect differences in the output of GNU ac and the output of ac's on other systems. Use the command info accounting to get additional information.
- -d, --daily-totals
Print totals for each day rather than just one big total at the
end. The output looks like this:
Jul 3 total 1.17
Jul 4 total 2.10
Jul 5 total 8.23
Jul 6 total 2.10
Jul 7 total 0.30
- -p, --individual-totals
Print time totals for each user in addition to the usual
everything-lumped-into-one value. It looks like:
- Print out the sum total of the connect time used by all of the users included in people. Note that people is a space separated list of valid user names; wildcards are not allowed.
- -f, --file filename
- Read from the file filename instead of the system's wtmp file.
- When the wtmp file has a problem (a time-warp, missing record, or whatever), print out an appropriate error.
- Reboot records are NOT written at the time of a reboot, but when the system restarts; therefore, it is impossible to know exactly when the reboot occurred. Users may have been logged into the system at the time of the reboot, and many ac's automatically count the time between the login and the reboot record against the user (even though all of that time shouldn't be, perhaps, if the system is down for a long time, for instance). If you want to count this time, include the flag. *For vanilla ac compatibility, include this flag.*
- Sometimes, a logout record is not written for a specific terminal, so the time that the last user accrued cannot be calculated. If you want to include the time from the user's login to the next login on the terminal (though probably incorrect), include this you want to include the time from the user's login to the next login on the terminal (though probably incorrect), include this flag. *For vanilla ac compatibility, include this flag.*
- Sometimes, entries in a wtmp file will suddenly jump back into the past without a clock change record occurring. It is impossible to know how long a user was logged in when this occurs. If you want to count the time between the login and the time warp against the user, include this flag. *For vanilla ac compatibility, include this flag.*
- This is shorthand for typing out the three above options.
- -a, --all-days
- If we're printing daily totals, print a record for every day instead of skipping intervening days where there is no login activity. Without this flag, time accrued during those intervening days gets listed under the next day where there is login activity.
- --tw-leniency num
- Set the time warp leniency to num seconds. Records in wtmp files might be slightly out of order (most notably when two logins occur within a one-second period - the second one gets written first). By default, this value is set to 60. If the program notices this problem, time is not assigned to users unless the --timewarps flag is used.
- --tw-suspicious num
- Set the time warp suspicious value to num seconds. If two records in the wtmp file are farther than this number of seconds apart, there is a problem with the wtmp file (or your machine hasn't been used in a year). If the program notices this problem, time is not assigned to users unless the --timewarps flag is used.
- -y, --print-year
- Print year when displaying dates.
- -z, --print-zeros
- If a total for any category (save the grand total) is zero, print it. The default is to suppress printing.
- Print verbose internal information.
- -V, --version
- Print the version number of ac to standard output and quit.
- -h, --help
- Prints the usage string and default locations of system files to standard output and exits.
The system wide login record file. See
for further details.
AUTHORThe GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg <email@example.com>. The man page was adapted from the accounting texinfo page by Susan Kleinmann <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
SEE ALSOlogin(1), wtmp(5), init(8), sa(8)