BPESection: User Commands (1)
Updated: November 09 1998
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NAMEbpe - examine and patch binary files
SYNOPSISbpe [ -abcdeEhkKLmrwxy ] [ -Bext ] [ -ln ] [ -ooffset ]
[ -sn ] file ...
DESCRIPTIONbpe is a simple, screen-oriented editor for searching and editing ordinary files in either ASCII or hexadecimal modes (directories can be searched on many systems but not edited). Files are displayed in n-byte pages (where n is a function of the terminal/window size) in separate ASCII and hexadecimal windows and it is possible to switch between the two windows as required.
- align a searched-for string or a selected address at the first column of each window - the default is for the display to be aligned on 16-byte boundaries.
- create a backup file with the default extension .bak - the filename must be no longer than the maximum number of characters allowed for a directory entry less the characters required for the extension.
- The backup file is created automatically in the current directory with the user's effective UID, with the GID as specified in creat(2) and with the same modes and modification-time as the original file. If a file of the same name already exists the user will be given the option of replacing it. The backup file is created only on the first access of a given file in the current bpe session.
- A backup file will not be created for a file that is opened in read-only mode or that is not an ordinary file or if a lockfile-error is detected.
- specify an extension for backup files instead of the default - apart from restrictions imposed by the file-system, ext can be no longer than 15 characters. Note that the -b option or the B command is still required to actually create a backup file.
- set the cursor position on entry to an edit mode to the top, left-hand corner of the appropriate window - by default the cursor position is set to the first character of a searched-for ASCII/hex string after a search operation or to the window position representing a selected address after a set-current-address operation (the C command can be used to toggle cursor-positioning on/off).
- clear the display before accessing each file in the file list and when toggling between the help screens - by default, bpe updates only those parts of the display that need to be changed. However, this can cause problems with some curses/terminal combinations that leave "old" data in the display. Using the -d option will overcome the problem (the D command can be used to toggle display-clear on/off).
- disable error-bell for command and file errors.
- disable error-bell in edit modes and during string/address data-entry.
- disable highlighting - by default, bpe uses highlighting in several areas but some curses/terminal combinations have trouble with mixed highlighted and non-highlighted characters, particularly over slow lines. The -h option will solve the problem although some of the visual convenience of bpe will be lost (the H command can be used to toggle highlighting on/off).
- disable ESC as escape character - by default, ESC (0x1b) is one of the characters that can be used to exit edit-mode and to abort string/address/data entry. This can cause timing problems, particularly over slow lines, with terminals that use the escape character in the strings sent by the cursor keys. If the -k option is used, ESC will no longer be interpreted as an escape character. This option is really of significance only if bpe has been compiled with keypad enabled.
- disable keypad - this option, which is available only if bpe has been compiled with keypad enabled, can be useful with some terminals (check the compile-time defaults with the -V option). The "vi-style" cursor-movement keys remain available if the -K option is used (see under Editing below).
- set the position of the target line after search and set-current-address operations to line n where n is an integer between 1 and 15 - the default is for the target line to be positioned at the top of the windows (i.e. n = 1).
- disable file-locking - by default a lockfile is created for a file opened in read/write mode and any other attempt to open the same file for read/write will result in the file being opened in read-only mode. The -L option disables normal creation of the lockfile although it is still created (but removed as soon as the file is open) as a check for its prior existence. This option, which is available only if bpe has been compiled with file-locking enabled, should be used with caution!
- disable message-receive - by default the modes of the user's tty are left unchanged. The -m option will clear group-write and world-write access. The original modes are restored on quitting bpe or when exiting to a shell.
- specify the start-address of the first page of a file that will be displayed when a file is first accessed instead of the default of 0x00 - the offset-address, which should be in the range from 0x01 to EOF inclusive, can be either octal, decimal or hexadecimal. An octal address should have a leading 0 and a hex address should have a leading 0x. If there is no leading 0 or 0x it is taken to be a decimal address.
- The start-address will be set to 0x00 if offset is outside the legal range for a given file and, in any case, will have no effect if a file has already been accessed in the current bpe session.
- open all files in read-only mode. A file will be opened in read-only mode automatically regardless of the use of the -r option if it does not have write access but is otherwise accessible or if a lockfile exists for that file (see -L above).
- set the number of lines to be scrolled with the + and - commands to n where n is an integer greater than 1 - the default is half the size of the editing window (i.e. 8 lines on a 24-line terminal).
- force bpe to use a 24-line by 80-column display over-riding any window-size information obtained at run-time (see Window Size below).
- do not disable XON-XOFF flow-control. It is disabled by default, partly to avoid the possibility of an unintended CTRL-S seeming to "lock" the terminal. However, flow-control may be needed with slow terminals (particularly on dial-up lines) but will be available with the -x option only if it is the default state.
- disable display of the file-address represented by the cursor-position during editing and file-address display during searching (useful on slow systems and, particularly, with slow terminals - the Y command can be used to toggle address-display on/off).
A brief explanation of the command-line options will be displayed if bpe is called with the -H option. The version number and date will be displayed with the -v option. If the -V option is used the compile-time defaults will also be listed.
Any of the command-line options (other than -H, -v and -V) can also be placed in the environment variable, BPE, to set user-preferred, run-time defaults and should take the form, for example, BPE='abcedeEhkKLmrwxyBext lnsnooffset' where n is an integer, ext is the required extension for any backup files and offset is the address at which file-display should start (see -o under Command-Line Options for the format). Note that, if B or o is given, ext or offset respectively must be followed by a space and the entire argument properly-enclosed in quotes if it is not the last option on the line. The form given is appropriate for the Bourne and Korn shells.
Any of the BPE options used without a corresponding command-line option (or vice-versa) will have the effect listed under Command-Line Options. However, an option given on the command line that is already set in BPE will have its action reversed.
As an example, BPE=r will put bpe into read-only mode as a run-time default but the use of the -r command-line option will then enable read/write mode.
Buffersbpe maintains three main buffers - an edit buffer, a last-write buffer and an original-data buffer. The size of the buffers is determined by the number of lines in the editing windows but would be 256 bytes for a "standard" 24 x 80 terminal.
The edit buffer contains the data that is displayed in the editing windows.
The last-write buffer reflects any changes that have been written to disk and is updated at each write. It is used to restore the contents of the edit buffer to the state that obtained before any modifications were made after the last write. The last-write buffer's contents will be the same as that of the original-data buffer if no write has taken place.
The original-data buffer contains the data read from the disk before any edit session for that page where a page is defined as any editing-window-sized segment of the file. The current page is that editing-window-sized segment contained within the buffers' boundaries.
Note, therefore, that any movement outside the current-page boundaries, i.e. moving to another page, will change the buffers' boundaries and, therefore, their contents.
The start-address of the current page is displayed at the top-right-hand corner of the screen.
bpe also maintains buffers for each file in the argument list. Various file-attributes are saved when a file is first accessed which speeds-up operations during any subsequent access in the current bpe session.
The current-page, marker, last-edited-page, last-set-current-address, last-successfully-searched-for-string and cursor-offset addresses are also saved for each file making it possible to return to a file with all previous settings intact - including any highlighting from a search operation.
Window SizeThe window-size is determined at run time. bpe will attempt to use all of the available lines (unless the -w option has been used) but the 80-column width is fixed. bpe will abort with an error if the window/terminal has fewer than 80 columns or if it has fewer lines than the minimum set at compile-time (this can be checked with the -V option) or fewer than 24 lines if the -w option has been used.
- toggle edit-mode - can be used after entering an edit mode with either the a or h commands.
- escape next edit character - allows the entry of non-printing ASCII characters in ASCII-edit mode and of single ASCII characters in hex-edit mode.
- redraw current screen (see below).
- set marker [a to z] to address represented by current cursor-position.
- single-character undo - available only for changes that have not been written to disk.
- ESC or CTRL-C
- exit edit mode and abort data-entry at any prompt in command-mode (CTRL-D can also be used - it has been included to maintain "compatibility" with the first versions of bpe).
- move to next file in arg list.
- move to previous file in arg list.
- display/select-from file list.
- add file to list.
- edit new file.
- jump to file number from arg list.
- jump to file name from arg list.
- t or #
- toggle between two-most-recently-accessed files.
- show names of two-most-recently-accessed files on status-line - the name of the current file will be highlighted.
- b or g
- display first page.
- e or G
- display last page.
- n or SPACE
- display next page.
- display previous page.
- scroll forward 1 line.
- scroll forward 8 lines (the number of lines to be scrolled with the + and - commands can be set with the -sn option).
- scroll back 1 line.
- scroll back 8 lines.
- set current address.
- set marker [a to z] to the current file address.
- set marker [a to z] to specific address.
- clear markers.
- display marker, current-page, last-edit-page, set-address, string-search and offset addresses. Note that any legal bpe command can be entered at the address-screen prompt although user-confirmation is required before quitting bpe directly from the prompt.
- ` or '
- goto address represented by marker [a to z]
- goto last set-current-address
- goto offset address entered on the command line.
- goto start-address of last-edited page.
- f or /
- find ASCII string (from current address)
- locate hex bytes (from current address)
- goto address of last successfully-searched-for string.
- edit in ASCII window.
- edit in hex window.
- toggle cursor-positioning on/off
- undo all changes to the window-buffer that have not been written to disk.
- undo changes after the window-buffer has been written to disk - this facility is available only if the current file address has not been changed.
- write modified window-buffer to disk.
- edit last command-mode entry at the file-name, search-string and address prompts (see under Command Editing below).
- clear status-line
- toggle display-clear on/off
- toggle highlighting on/off - any highlighting already in the display will be removed when highlighting is turned off. Turning highlighting on will restore any highlighting that would have been in the display had highlighting not been off or that had been there before highlighting was turned off with the exception of any string-search highlighting that had been removed with the r command.
- remove highlighting - any highlighting from a search or edit will be removed but, in the latter case, the window-buffer contents will not be changed. Highlighting will not be turned-off. This command will have no effect if highlighting is off.
- display highlighting - restore any highlighting that has been removed with the r command. The d command can also be used to restore highlighting to a searched-for-string that was removed by entering an edit mode as long as there are no unwritten window-buffer-modifications present in the display and the string itself has not been edited. Once again, this command will have no effect if highlighting is turned-off.
- R or CTRL-R
- redraw current screen - useful for removing mailer messages and the like. The CTRL-R form can be used from within the edit modes and during data entry at any prompt.
- toggle address-display on/off
- create a backup of the current file (even if it has been opened in read-only mode) regardless of whether the -b command-line option has been used. A backup can be created only of an ordinary file.
- write (part-of) the current file to a new file.
- show status of address-display, cursor-positioning, display-clear and highlighting options.
- show file information and window-buffer, file-mod, backup, lockfile and string-search status.
- show version number.
- quit bpe.
- unconditional quit.
- shell-escape (no arguments accepted) - runs shell set in the SHELL environment variable or defaults to /bin/sh if SHELL is not set. CTRL-Z can also be used to initiate a shell-escape on systems on which job-control is not available or has been disabled.
- display help screens - the help screens will, where appropriate, reflect compile and run-time defaults. As with the X command, any legal bpe command can be entered at the help-screen prompts although user-confirmation is required before quitting bpe directly from help.
Command EditingSimple line-editing is available when entering string/address data at an appropriate prompt. CTRL-H (or left-arrow key if keypad is enabled) will move backwards and CTRL-L (or right-arrow key) will move forwards through an already-entered string. DEL will delete the single character before the cursor or at the cursor if at the beginning of the string. Insert mode is always on and any legal character will be inserted before the cursor.
Entering CTRL-E will retrieve any string entered previously at that prompt and make it available for editing. A string for a particular prompt is carried across from file to file.
Selecting FilesMove through the files in the argument list with the N, P, F, j, J and t commands.
The N and P commands will move to the next and previous files in the argument list respectively.
The F command will display a numbered list of the files with the name of the current file highlighted (or marked with square brackets if highlighting is turned off) - select the required file by number. Enter the number of the current file or RETURN on its own to continue editing the current file. Note that the length of the file name (or path name) in the display is limited to 19 characters - only the last 18 characters are displayed, with a leading > to indicate that truncation has taken place, if the name is longer than the 19-character limit (only the last 16 are displayed for the current file if highlighting is turned off). Note, too, that the same truncation from the left is used when necessary for the file-name display at the top-left of the screen and, when appropriate, on the status-line.
The j command will prompt for a number from the file list - enter the number of the current file or RETURN on its own to continue editing the current file. Use of this command assumes that the user has already viewed that list and, thus, knows the number. It provides a quick method of switching between files without having to display the full list each time. If there are only two files in the list, the j command will toggle between them.
The J command will prompt for a name from the file list - note that the only names that can be used are those which were present on the command-line when bpe was called or which were added with the A or E commands. Once again, if there are only two files in the list, the J command will toggle between them.
The t or # commands will toggle between the two most-recently-accessed files from the file list. The names of the two files, with that of the current file highlighted (or marked with square brackets if highlighting is turned off), can be shown on the status-line with the T command. The commands will have no effect until at least two files have been accessed.
The A or E commands can be used to access files not already in the file list. Both commands will prompt for a file name and add the name to the file list. The E command will also change the current file to the new file. Note that there can be no more than 60 files in the list.
Moving Through a FileAny of the file-position commands can be used to move through a file.
The s command will prompt for a legal address which can be either octal, decimal or hexadecimal. An octal address should have a leading 0 and a hex address should have a leading 0x. If there is no leading 0 or 0x it is taken to be a decimal address. Note that bpe defines the first byte of a file as being at address 0x00 which may cause minor confusion when using addresses given by some other utilities that insist that the first byte is at 0x01.
Several "shorthand" codes can also be used at the prompt.
A legal marker [a to z] that has already been set to an address can be entered in response instead of an actual address, a B or E will give the address of the beginning or the end of the file respectively, a C will give the start-address of the current page, a G will give the start-address of the last page, an L will give the address of the last successfully-search-for string, an O will give the offset address entered on the command line, an X will give the start-address of the last-edited page, an S will give the address entered for the last set-address operation and entering just a RETURN will give the last address entered at that prompt (this action is duplicated by the @ command). The last-address string can be retrieved for editing with CTRL-E but the addresses represented by previously-entered "shorthand" codes are not available.
A set-current-address operation can be aborted during address-entry (as can any data-entry at a prompt) by entering ESC, CTRL-C or CTRL-D.
Markers can be used to store addresses to enable rapid movement through a file.
Set a marker with the m command followed by a valid marker-identifier [a to z] at the prompt. The selected marker will be set to the start-address of the current page.
Set a marker to a specific address with the M command followed, as before, by a valid marker-identifier [a to z] at the marker prompt and then a legal address or "shorthand" code (see above) at the address prompt.
A marker can be set from within an edit mode to the address represented by the current cursor position with CTRL-X
All markers can be cleared with the k command.
Move to the address represented by a marker with the ' command followed by a valid marker-identifier [a to z] at the prompt.
Move to the address of the last successfully-searched-for string, be it hex or ASCII, with the L command (see under Searching). The string will be highlighted in both windows if it has not been modified since the search.
Move to the start-address of the last page that was edited with the x command.
EditingEnter edit mode with a for ASCII or h for hex editing.
Unless the -c option has been used, the cursor will be placed at the start of a searched-for string or at the window-position representing a selected address. If the -c option has been used or if the editing session does not follow a search or set-current-address operation the cursor will be placed in the upper, left-hand corner of the appropriate window.
Use the "vi-style" cursor-movement keys - CTRL-J (down), CTRL-K (up), CTRL-H (left), CTRL-L (right) and CTRL-^ (home) - to place the cursor on the byte to be changed (the arrow-keys can also be used if bpe was appropriately-compiled and there is a valid termcap/terminfo entry).
Enter a printing ASCII character, i.e. from 0x20 to 0x7e (32 to 126) inclusive, or a two-digit hex value depending on the mode. Prefixing each character with CTRL-V allows characters outside the printing-ASCII range to be entered in ASCII-edit mode or single characters to be entered in hex-edit mode.
Note that non-printing ASCII characters will be represented in the ASCII window by the . (0x2e) character.
Any changes will be highlighted and will be reflected in both windows. However, any "changes" that correspond to the last-write buffer contents will not be highlighted.
Any single ASCII character or hexadecimal digit can be returned to its former value with DEL (0x7f).
Exit edit mode by with ESC or CTRL-C and write the modified window-buffer to disk with w.
A warning will be given if an attempt is made to move to another page, to scroll the display, to edit another file or to quit the program if the modified edit buffer has not been written to disk. The edit buffer can be returned to its state after the last write with the u command. The Q command can be used to quit bpe unconditionally after a user-confirmation check even if buffer-modifications exist that have not been written to disk.
If the modified edit buffer has been written to disk the changes can still be undone with the U command if the current file address, i.e. the current page, has not been changed since the write. Any changes made to the edit buffer after the last write to disk of that buffer will also be undone by the U command. Only the page represented by the edit buffer will be affected - any changes to other pages previously written to disk will not be undone.
The file-modification time will be restored on exit with the q command or when moving to another file with any of the file-selection commands if all changes written to disk have been undone using the U command.
SearchingSearch for hex data with the l command and a string of hex digits - a leading x or 0 or a trailing h is not required but a leading 0 will be added if an odd number of characters is entered. The search can be aborted during string-entry by entering ESC, CTRL-C or CTRL-D.
To search again for the same string, enter the l command and press RETURN - if the starting address has not been adjusted the search will start one character past the location of the last occurrence found. The last-searched-for-string can be edited after entering CTRL-E and is carried across from file to file.
Search for an ASCII string with the f or / command. Enter a string at the prompt followed by RETURN - once again, the previous pattern is used if no pattern is specified. Searching is case-sensitive and proceeds as with a hex-data search.
Searching is forward from the current file address which remains unchanged if the string is not found. Search operations do not wrap around after end-of-file.
Following a successful search, the display is adjusted to put the first byte of the string in the line at the top of the screen unless the -ln option has been used.
The string will be highlighted in both windows unless the -h option has been used. Any highlighting of the searched-for string will be retained following a partial-screen scroll as long as all of the string is still in the windows but it will be removed if another search is made. It will also be removed when entering an edit mode to avoid confusion with the highlighting of modified data. The S command can be used to check if any highlighting is the result of a string-search.
Backups and CopiesFor obvious reasons, it is suggested that a backup copy should be made before patching any file for which the source is not available. Backups can be made automatically with the -b command-line option or manually with the B command (see above).
The current file, or any part of the current file, can also be written to a new file with the W command.
The user will be prompted for a filename and, as before, previously-entered strings can be used by entering just RETURN or by entering CTRL-E for editing. If a file of the same name already exists the user will be given the option of replacing it, appending to it or quitting.
The user will then be prompted for the current-file addresses for the segment of the file that is to be written to the new file. Enter a legal address at each prompt (see under Moving Through a File for the format). Note that, if the current page is included in the address-range, any buffer-modifications that have not been written to disk will not be written to the new file.
StatusThe S command will show the following information on the status-line.
- [ordinary file]
- the file being examined or patched is an ordinary file.
- the file being examined is a directory - it will have been opened in read-only mode even if the -r option has not been used.
- the file does not exist, it is a zero-byte file, its permissions do not allow access or it is a special file.
- the file has been opened for reading and writing (normal default).
- the file has been opened in read-only mode because the -r option has been used or the file is a directory or a file-error or lockfile-error has been detected.
- a lockfile has been created for the file being edited - any attempt by another user to edit the same file will result in it being opened in read-only mode.
- no lockfile has been created either because the file has been opened in read-only mode or because the -L option has been used.
- [lockfile exists]
- a lockfile for the file being edited has been created by another user - as a result, the file will have been opened in read-only mode.
- an error was detected when attempting to create, read, write-to or delete the lockfile.
- no backup file has been created.
- a backup file has been created either by use of the -b option or the B command.
- an error was detected when attempting to create a backup file.
- no modifications have been made to the edit buffer or written to disk.
- modifications have been made to the edit buffer that have not been written to disk.
- modifications have been written to disk.
- any highlighting in the edit windows is the result of a successful search.
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLESbpe checks the BPE environment variable for any default run-time options, the SHELL environment variable for the default shell if the shell escape is used and, of course, the TERM environment variable.
DIAGNOSTICSSelf explanatory. Error messages are highlighted on the status line unless the -h option has been used - information messages are not highlighted.
Program-termination is not forced on any lseek(2), read(2) or write(2) error but the user should take any subsequent actions with care. The Q command will quit the program and avoid further disk accesses apart from any associated with the file close.
However, program-termination is forced on any close(2) error or on other than a permission-related error when resetting the file-modification time (if appropriate) and the last error message is retained on the display.
RETURN VALUEbpe returns 1 on error, otherwise zero.
SEE ALSOdd(1), dump(1), od(1)
AUTHORv1.1 written by Andreas Pleschutznig, Teichhofweg 2, 8044 Graz, Austria (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Contributions by email@example.com
v1.2 features added by Bill Davidsen, Box 8 KW-C206, Schenectady, NY 12345
v1.3 features added by firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com and jon@joblab and integrated by firstname.lastname@example.org
v1.[1-3] bug-fixes, v1.4[0-8] and v2.00.nn rewrites/features-added and man page written by Ralphe Neill (email@example.com)
BUGSThis version of bpe does not respond to a SIGWINCH signal.
The help, marker/address and file-list screens assume a 24-line by 80-column display and are not adjusted if the display has fewer than 24 lines.
The maximum number of characters that can be entered at any prompt where command editing is allowed is limited to 63.
Initial write-accessibility checks use the access(2) system-call - this could lead to problems in some circumstances.
The naming convention used for lockfiles could lead to ambiguities with similarly-named files. The first n - 4 characters of the filename are used for part of the lockfile name where n is the maximum number of characters allowed for a filename. The -L option can be used to overcome the problem, should it arise, but it should be used with caution (see under Command-Line Options above).
Lockfile-operation cannot be relied on when editing files under NFS.
Some versions of curses(3X) do not check the TERMCAP or TERMINFO environment variables making it impossible to use "custom" terminal definitions.
This version of bpe cannot be used with special files.
- ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
- RETURN VALUE
- SEE ALSO