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GIT\-COMMIT

Section: Git Manual (1)
Updated: 09/30/2007
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NAME

git-commit - Record changes to the repository  

SYNOPSIS

git-commit [-a | --interactive] [-s] [-v] [-u]
           [(-c | -C) <commit> | -F <file> | -m <msg> | --amend]
           [--no-verify] [-e] [--author <author>]
           [--] [[-i | -o ]<file>...]
 

DESCRIPTION

Use git commit to store the current contents of the index in a new commit along with a log message describing the changes you have made.

The content to be added can be specified in several ways:

1.by using git-add(1) to incrementally "add" changes to the index before using the commit command (Note: even modified files must be "added");
2.by using git-rm(1) to remove files from the working tree and the index, again before using the commit command;
3.by listing files as arguments to the commit command, in which case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead record the current content of the listed files;
4.by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the actual commit;
5.by using the --interactive switch with the commit command to decide one by one which files should be part of the commit, before finalizing the operation. Currently, this is done by invoking git-add --interactive.
The git-status(1) command can be used to obtain a summary of what is included by any of the above for the next commit by giving the same set of parameters you would give to this command.

If you make a commit and then found a mistake immediately after that, you can recover from it with git-reset(1).  

OPTIONS

-a|--all

Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been modified and deleted, but new files you have not told git about are not affected.

-c or -C <commit>

Take existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating the commit. With -C, the editor is not invoked; with -c the user can further edit the commit message.

-F <file>

Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the message from the standard input.

--author <author>

Override the author name used in the commit. Use A U Thor <author@example.com> format.

-m <msg>|--message=<msg>

Use the given <msg> as the commit message.

-t <file>|--template=<file>

Use the contents of the given file as the initial version of the commit message. The editor is invoked and you can make subsequent changes. If a message is specified using the -m or -F options, this option has no effect. This overrides the commit.template configuration variable.

-s|--signoff

Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.

--no-verify

This option bypasses the pre-commit hook. See also hooks[1].

-e|--edit

The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from file with -C are usually used as the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message taken from these sources.

--amend

Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the current tip --- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of the current tip as parents --- so the current top commit is discarded.

It is a rough equivalent for:


.ft C
        $ git reset --soft HEAD^
        $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
        $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

.ft

but can be used to amend a merge commit.

-i|--include

Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is usually not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted merge.

-u|--untracked-files

Show all untracked files, also those in uninteresting directories, in the "Untracked files:" section of commit message template. Without this option only its name and a trailing slash are displayed for each untracked directory.

-v|--verbose

Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be committed at the bottom of the commit message template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its lines prefixed with #.

-q|--quiet

Suppress commit summary message.

--

Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

<file>...

When files are given on the command line, the command commits the contents of the named files, without recording the changes already staged. The contents of these files are also staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.
 

EXAMPLES

When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area called the "index" with git-add(1). Removal of a file is staged with git-rm(1). After building the state to be committed incrementally with these commands, git commit (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the command. An example:


.ft C
$ edit hello.c
$ git rm goodbye.c
$ git add hello.c
$ git commit
.ft

Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can tell git commit to notice the changes to the files whose contents are tracked in your working tree and do corresponding git add and git rm for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier example if there is no other change in your working tree:


.ft C
$ edit hello.c
$ rm goodbye.c
$ git commit -a
.ft

The command git commit -a first looks at your working tree, notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c, and performs necessary git add and git rm for you.

After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to git commit. When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that only records the changes made to the named paths:


.ft C
$ edit hello.c hello.h
$ git add hello.c hello.h
$ edit Makefile
$ git commit Makefile
.ft

This makes a commit that records the modification to Makefile. The changes staged for hello.c and hello.h are not included in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --- they are still staged and merely held back. After the above sequence, if you do:


.ft C
$ git commit
.ft

this second commit would record the changes to hello.c and hello.h as expected.

After a merge (initiated by either git-merge(1) or git-pull(1)) stops because of conflicts, cleanly merged paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first check which paths are conflicting with git-status(1) and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would stage the result as usual with git-add(1):


.ft C
$ git status | grep unmerged
unmerged: hello.c
$ edit hello.c
$ git add hello.c
.ft

After resolving conflicts and staging the result, git ls-files -u would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done, run git commit to finally record the merge:


.ft C
$ git commit
.ft

As with the case to record your own changes, you can use -a option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge resolution, you cannot use git commit with pathnames to alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command refuses to run when given pathnames (but see -i option).  

DISCUSSION

Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description. Tools that turn commits into email, for example, use the first line on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in the body.

At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.

*The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared with the data git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding translation.
*The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequence of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.
*The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequence of non-NUL bytes.
Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, git does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

1.git-commit-tree (hence, git-commit which uses it) issues an warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like this:


.ft C
[i18n]
        commitencoding = ISO-8859-1
.ft

Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
2.git-log, git-show and friends looks at the encoding header of a commit object, and tries to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file, like this:


.ft C
[i18n]
        logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1
.ft

If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitencoding is used instead.
Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.  

ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES

The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that order).  

HOOKS

This command can run commit-msg, pre-commit, and post-commit hooks. See hooks[1] for more information.  

SEE ALSO

git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mv(1), git-merge(1), git-commit-tree(1)  

AUTHOR

Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>  

GIT

Part of the git(7) suite  

REFERENCES

1.
hooks
hooks.html


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
EXAMPLES
DISCUSSION
ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
HOOKS
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
GIT
REFERENCES




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