Linux Blog

HG

Section: (1)
Updated: 06/25/2007
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

hg - Mercurial source code management system  

SYNOPSIS

hg [global option]... <command> [command/global option]... [argument]...

 

DESCRIPTION

The hg(1) command provides a command line interface to the Mercurial system.

 

COMMAND ELEMENTS

files ...

indicates one or more filename or relative path filenames; see "FILE NAME PATTERNS" for information on pattern matching

path

indicates a path on the local machine

revision

indicates a changeset which can be specified as a changeset revision number, a tag, or a unique substring of the changeset hash value

repository path

either the pathname of a local repository or the URI of a remote repository. There are two available URI protocols, http:// which is fast and the static-http:// protocol which is much slower but does not require a special server on the web host.
 

OPTIONS

-R, --repository

repository root directory or symbolic path name

--cwd

change working directory

-y, --noninteractive

do not prompt, assume yes for any required answers

-q, --quiet

suppress output

-v, --verbose

enable additional output

--config

set/override config option

--debug

enable debugging output

--debugger

start debugger

--encoding

set the charset encoding (default: UTF-8)

--encodingmode

set the charset encoding mode (default: strict)

--lsprof

print improved command execution profile

--traceback

print traceback on exception

--time

time how long the command takes

--profile

print command execution profile

--version

output version information and exit

-h, --help

display help and exit
 

COMMANDS

add [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Schedule files to be version controlled and added to the repository.

The files will be added to the repository at the next commit. To
undo an add before that, see hg revert.

If no names are given, add all files in the repository.

options:
-I, --include  include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude  exclude names matching the given patterns
-n, --dry-run  do not perform actions, just print output

addremove [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Add all new files and remove all missing files from the repository.

New files are ignored if they match any of the patterns in .hgignore. As
with add, these changes take effect at the next commit.

Use the -s option to detect renamed files.  With a parameter > 0,
this compares every removed file with every added file and records
those similar enough as renames.  This option takes a percentage
between 0 (disabled) and 100 (files must be identical) as its
parameter.  Detecting renamed files this way can be expensive.

options:
-s, --similarity  guess renamed files by similarity (0<=s<=100)
-I, --include     include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude     exclude names matching the given patterns
-n, --dry-run     do not perform actions, just print output

annotate [-r REV] [-f] [-a] [-u] [-d] [-n] [-c] FILE...

List changes in files, showing the revision id responsible for each line

This command is useful to discover who did a change or when a change took
place.

Without the -a option, annotate will avoid processing files it
detects as binary. With -a, annotate will generate an annotation
anyway, probably with undesirable results.

options:
-r, --rev        annotate the specified revision
-f, --follow     follow file copies and renames
-a, --text       treat all files as text
-u, --user       list the author
-d, --date       list the date
-n, --number     list the revision number (default)
-c, --changeset  list the changeset
-I, --include    include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude    exclude names matching the given patterns

archive [OPTION]... DEST

By default, the revision used is the parent of the working directory; use "-r" to specify a different revision.

To specify the type of archive to create, use "-t".  Valid
types are:

"files" (default): a directory full of files
"tar": tar archive, uncompressed
"tbz2": tar archive, compressed using bzip2
"tgz": tar archive, compressed using gzip
"uzip": zip archive, uncompressed
"zip": zip archive, compressed using deflate

The exact name of the destination archive or directory is given
using a format string; see "hg help export" for details.

Each member added to an archive file has a directory prefix
prepended.  Use "-p" to specify a format string for the prefix.
The default is the basename of the archive, with suffixes removed.

options:
--no-decode    do not pass files through decoders
-p, --prefix   directory prefix for files in archive
-r, --rev      revision to distribute
-t, --type     type of distribution to create
-I, --include  include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude  exclude names matching the given patterns

backout [OPTION]... [-r] REV

Commit the backed out changes as a new changeset. The new changeset is a child of the backed out changeset.

If you back out a changeset other than the tip, a new head is
created.  This head is the parent of the working directory.  If
you back out an old changeset, your working directory will appear
old after the backout.  You should merge the backout changeset
with another head.

The --merge option remembers the parent of the working directory
before starting the backout, then merges the new head with that
changeset afterwards.  This saves you from doing the merge by
hand.  The result of this merge is not committed, as for a normal
merge.

options:
--merge        merge with old dirstate parent after backout
-d, --date     record datecode as commit date
--parent       parent to choose when backing out merge
-u, --user     record user as committer
-r, --rev      revision to backout
-I, --include  include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude  exclude names matching the given patterns
-m, --message  use <text> as commit message
-l, --logfile  read commit message from <file>

branch [NAME]

With no argument, show the current branch name. With one argument, set the working directory branch name (the branch does not exist in the repository until the next commit).

Unless --force is specified, branch will not let you set a
branch name that shadows an existing branch.

options:
-f, --force  set branch name even if it shadows an existing branch

branches [-a]

List the repository's named branches, indicating which ones are inactive. If active is specified, only show active branches.

A branch is considered active if it contains unmerged heads.

options:
-a, --active  show only branches that have unmerged heads

bundle [-f] [-r REV]... [--base REV]... FILE [DEST]

Generate a compressed changegroup file collecting changesets not found in the other repository.

If no destination repository is specified the destination is assumed
to have all the nodes specified by one or more --base parameters.

The bundle file can then be transferred using conventional means and
applied to another repository with the unbundle or pull command.
This is useful when direct push and pull are not available or when
exporting an entire repository is undesirable.

Applying bundles preserves all changeset contents including
permissions, copy/rename information, and revision history.

options:
-f, --force  run even when remote repository is unrelated
-r, --rev    a changeset you would like to bundle
--base       a base changeset to specify instead of a destination
-e, --ssh    specify ssh command to use
--remotecmd  specify hg command to run on the remote side

cat [OPTION]... FILE...

Print the specified files as they were at the given revision. If no revision is given, the parent of the working directory is used, or tip if no revision is checked out.

Output may be to a file, in which case the name of the file is
given using a format string.  The formatting rules are the same as
for the export command, with the following additions:

%s   basename of file being printed
%d   dirname of file being printed, or '.' if in repo root
%p   root-relative path name of file being printed

options:
-o, --output   print output to file with formatted name
-r, --rev      print the given revision
-I, --include  include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude  exclude names matching the given patterns

clone [OPTION]... SOURCE [DEST]

Create a copy of an existing repository in a new directory.

If no destination directory name is specified, it defaults to the
basename of the source.

The location of the source is added to the new repository's
.hg/hgrc file, as the default to be used for future pulls.

For efficiency, hardlinks are used for cloning whenever the source
and destination are on the same filesystem (note this applies only
to the repository data, not to the checked out files).  Some
filesystems, such as AFS, implement hardlinking incorrectly, but
do not report errors.  In these cases, use the --pull option to
avoid hardlinking.

You can safely clone repositories and checked out files using full
hardlinks with

$ cp -al REPO REPOCLONE

which is the fastest way to clone. However, the operation is not
atomic (making sure REPO is not modified during the operation is
up to you) and you have to make sure your editor breaks hardlinks
(Emacs and most Linux Kernel tools do so).

If you use the -r option to clone up to a specific revision, no
subsequent revisions will be present in the cloned repository.
This option implies --pull, even on local repositories.

See pull for valid source format details.

It is possible to specify an ssh:// URL as the destination, but no
.hg/hgrc and working directory will be created on the remote side.
Look at the help text for the pull command for important details
about ssh:// URLs.

options:
-U, --noupdate  do not update the new working directory
-r, --rev       a changeset you would like to have after cloning
--pull          use pull protocol to copy metadata
--uncompressed  use uncompressed transfer (fast over LAN)
-e, --ssh       specify ssh command to use
--remotecmd     specify hg command to run on the remote side

commit [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Commit changes to the given files into the repository.

If a list of files is omitted, all changes reported by "hg status"
will be committed.

If no commit message is specified, the editor configured in your hgrc
or in the EDITOR environment variable is started to enter a message.

options:
-A, --addremove  mark new/missing files as added/removed before
                 committing
-d, --date       record datecode as commit date
-u, --user       record user as commiter
-I, --include    include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude    exclude names matching the given patterns
-m, --message    use <text> as commit message
-l, --logfile    read commit message from <file>

aliases: ci

copy [OPTION]... [SOURCE]... DEST

Mark dest as having copies of source files. If dest is a directory, copies are put in that directory. If dest is a file, there can only be one source.

By default, this command copies the contents of files as they
stand in the working directory.  If invoked with --after, the
operation is recorded, but no copying is performed.

This command takes effect in the next commit. To undo a copy
before that, see hg revert.

options:
-A, --after    record a copy that has already occurred
-f, --force    forcibly copy over an existing managed file
-I, --include  include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude  exclude names matching the given patterns
-n, --dry-run  do not perform actions, just print output

aliases: cp

diff [OPTION]... [-r REV1 [-r REV2]] [FILE]...

Show differences between revisions for the specified files.

Differences between files are shown using the unified diff format.

NOTE: diff may generate unexpected results for merges, as it will
default to comparing against the working directory's first parent
changeset if no revisions are specified.

When two revision arguments are given, then changes are shown
between those revisions. If only one revision is specified then
that revision is compared to the working directory, and, when no
revisions are specified, the working directory files are compared
to its parent.

Without the -a option, diff will avoid generating diffs of files
it detects as binary. With -a, diff will generate a diff anyway,
probably with undesirable results.

options:
-r, --rev                  revision
-a, --text                 treat all files as text
-p, --show-function        show which function each change is in
-g, --git                  use git extended diff format
--nodates                  don't include dates in diff headers
-w, --ignore-all-space     ignore white space when comparing lines
-b, --ignore-space-change  ignore changes in the amount of white
                           space
-B, --ignore-blank-lines   ignore changes whose lines are all
                           blank
-I, --include              include names matching the given
                           patterns
-X, --exclude              exclude names matching the given
                           patterns

export [OPTION]... [-o OUTFILESPEC] REV...

Print the changeset header and diffs for one or more revisions.

The information shown in the changeset header is: author,
changeset hash, parent(s) and commit comment.

NOTE: export may generate unexpected diff output for merge changesets,
as it will compare the merge changeset against its first parent only.

Output may be to a file, in which case the name of the file is
given using a format string.  The formatting rules are as follows:

%%   literal "%" character
%H   changeset hash (40 bytes of hexadecimal)
%N   number of patches being generated
%R   changeset revision number
%b   basename of the exporting repository
%h   short-form changeset hash (12 bytes of hexadecimal)
%n   zero-padded sequence number, starting at 1
%r   zero-padded changeset revision number

Without the -a option, export will avoid generating diffs of files
it detects as binary. With -a, export will generate a diff anyway,
probably with undesirable results.

With the --switch-parent option, the diff will be against the second
parent. It can be useful to review a merge.

options:
-o, --output     print output to file with formatted name
-a, --text       treat all files as text
-g, --git        use git extended diff format
--nodates        don't include dates in diff headers
--switch-parent  diff against the second parent

grep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...

Search revisions of files for a regular expression.

This command behaves differently than Unix grep.  It only accepts
Python/Perl regexps.  It searches repository history, not the
working directory.  It always prints the revision number in which
a match appears.

By default, grep only prints output for the first revision of a
file in which it finds a match.  To get it to print every revision
that contains a change in match status ("-" for a match that
becomes a non-match, or "+" for a non-match that becomes a match),
use the --all flag.

options:
-0, --print0              end fields with NUL
--all                     print all revisions that match
-f, --follow              follow changeset history, or file
                          history across copies and renames
-i, --ignore-case         ignore case when matching
-l, --files-with-matches  print only filenames and revs that match
-n, --line-number         print matching line numbers
-r, --rev                 search in given revision range
-u, --user                print user who committed change
-I, --include             include names matching the given
                          patterns
-X, --exclude             exclude names matching the given
                          patterns

heads [-r REV] [REV]...

With no arguments, show all repository head changesets.

If branch or revisions names are given this will show the heads of
the specified branches or the branches those revisions are tagged
with.

Repository "heads" are changesets that don't have child
changesets. They are where development generally takes place and
are the usual targets for update and merge operations.

Branch heads are changesets that have a given branch tag, but have
no child changesets with that tag.  They are usually where
development on the given branch takes place.

options:
--style     display using template map file
-r, --rev   show only heads which are descendants of rev
--template  display with template

help [COMMAND]

With no arguments, print a list of commands and short help.

Given a command name, print help for that command.

Given an extension name, print help for that extension, and the
commands it provides.

identify [-nibt] [-r REV] [SOURCE]

With no revision, print a summary of the current state of the repo.

With a path, do a lookup in another repository.

This summary identifies the repository state using one or two parent
hash identifiers, followed by a "+" if there are uncommitted changes
in the working directory, a list of tags for this revision and a branch
name for non-default branches.

options:
-r, --rev     identify the specified rev
-n, --num     show local revision number
-i, --id      show global revision id
-b, --branch  show branch
-t, --tags    show tags

aliases: id

import [-p NUM] [-m MESSAGE] [-f] PATCH...

Import a list of patches and commit them individually.

If there are outstanding changes in the working directory, import
will abort unless given the -f flag.

You can import a patch straight from a mail message.  Even patches
as attachments work (body part must be type text/plain or
text/x-patch to be used).  From and Subject headers of email
message are used as default committer and commit message.  All
text/plain body parts before first diff are added to commit
message.

If the imported patch was generated by hg export, user and description
from patch override values from message headers and body.  Values
given on command line with -m and -u override these.

If --exact is specified, import will set the working directory
to the parent of each patch before applying it, and will abort
if the resulting changeset has a different ID than the one
recorded in the patch. This may happen due to character set
problems or other deficiencies in the text patch format.

To read a patch from standard input, use patch name "-".

options:
-p, --strip      directory strip option for patch. This has the
                 same meaning as the corresponding patch option
                 (default: 1)
-b, --base       base path
-f, --force      skip check for outstanding uncommitted changes
--exact          apply patch to the nodes from which it was
                 generated
--import-branch  Use any branch information in patch (implied by
                 --exact)
-m, --message    use <text> as commit message
-l, --logfile    read commit message from <file>

aliases: patch

incoming [-p] [-n] [-M] [-f] [-r REV]... [--bundle FILENAME] [SOURCE]

Show new changesets found in the specified path/URL or the default pull location. These are the changesets that would be pulled if a pull was requested.

For remote repository, using --bundle avoids downloading the changesets
twice if the incoming is followed by a pull.

See pull for valid source format details.

options:
-M, --no-merges     do not show merges
-f, --force         run even when remote repository is unrelated
--style             display using template map file
-n, --newest-first  show newest record first
--bundle            file to store the bundles into
-p, --patch         show patch
-r, --rev           a specific revision up to which you would like
                    to pull
--template          display with template
-e, --ssh           specify ssh command to use
--remotecmd         specify hg command to run on the remote side

aliases: in

init [-e CMD] [--remotecmd CMD] [DEST]

Initialize a new repository in the given directory. If the given directory does not exist, it is created.

If no directory is given, the current directory is used.

It is possible to specify an ssh:// URL as the destination.
Look at the help text for the pull command for important details
about ssh:// URLs.

options:
-e, --ssh    specify ssh command to use
--remotecmd  specify hg command to run on the remote side

locate [OPTION]... [PATTERN]...

Print all files under Mercurial control whose names match the given patterns.

This command searches the entire repository by default.  To search
just the current directory and its subdirectories, use
"--include .".

If no patterns are given to match, this command prints all file
names.

If you want to feed the output of this command into the "xargs"
command, use the "-0" option to both this command and "xargs".
This will avoid the problem of "xargs" treating single filenames
that contain white space as multiple filenames.

options:
-r, --rev       search the repository as it stood at rev
-0, --print0    end filenames with NUL, for use with xargs
-f, --fullpath  print complete paths from the filesystem root
-I, --include   include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude   exclude names matching the given patterns

log [OPTION]... [FILE]

Print the revision history of the specified files or the entire project.

File history is shown without following rename or copy history of
files.  Use -f/--follow with a file name to follow history across
renames and copies. --follow without a file name will only show
ancestors or descendants of the starting revision. --follow-first
only follows the first parent of merge revisions.

If no revision range is specified, the default is tip:0 unless
--follow is set, in which case the working directory parent is
used as the starting revision.

By default this command outputs: changeset id and hash, tags,
non-trivial parents, user, date and time, and a summary for each
commit. When the -v/--verbose switch is used, the list of changed
files and full commit message is shown.

NOTE: log -p may generate unexpected diff output for merge
changesets, as it will compare the merge changeset against its
first parent only. Also, the files: list will only reflect files
that are different from BOTH parents.

options:
-f, --follow       follow changeset history, or file history
                   across copies and renames
--follow-first     only follow the first parent of merge
                   changesets
-d, --date         show revs matching date spec
-C, --copies       show copied files
-k, --keyword      do case-insensitive search for a keyword
-l, --limit        limit number of changes displayed
-r, --rev          show the specified revision or range
--removed          include revs where files were removed
-M, --no-merges    do not show merges
--style            display using template map file
-m, --only-merges  show only merges
-p, --patch        show patch
-P, --prune        do not display revision or any of its ancestors
--template         display with template
-I, --include      include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude      exclude names matching the given patterns

aliases: history

manifest [REV]

Print a list of version controlled files for the given revision. If no revision is given, the parent of the working directory is used, or tip if no revision is checked out.

The manifest is the list of files being version controlled. If no revision
is given then the first parent of the working directory is used.

With -v flag, print file permissions. With --debug flag, print
file revision hashes.

merge [-f] [[-r] REV]

Merge the contents of the current working directory and the requested revision. Files that changed between either parent are marked as changed for the next commit and a commit must be performed before any further updates are allowed.

If no revision is specified, the working directory's parent is a
head revision, and the repository contains exactly one other head,
the other head is merged with by default.  Otherwise, an explicit
revision to merge with must be provided.

options:
-f, --force  force a merge with outstanding changes
-r, --rev    revision to merge

outgoing [-M] [-p] [-n] [-f] [-r REV]... [DEST]

Show changesets not found in the specified destination repository or the default push location. These are the changesets that would be pushed if a push was requested.

See pull for valid destination format details.

options:
-M, --no-merges     do not show merges
-f, --force         run even when remote repository is unrelated
-p, --patch         show patch
--style             display using template map file
-r, --rev           a specific revision you would like to push
-n, --newest-first  show newest record first
--template          display with template
-e, --ssh           specify ssh command to use
--remotecmd         specify hg command to run on the remote side

aliases: out

parents [-r REV] [FILE]

Print the working directory's parent revisions. If a revision is given via --rev, the parent of that revision will be printed. If a file argument is given, revision in which the file was last changed (before the working directory revision or the argument to --rev if given) is printed.

options:
-r, --rev   show parents from the specified rev
--style     display using template map file
--template  display with template

paths [NAME]

Show definition of symbolic path name NAME. If no name is given, show definition of available names.

Path names are defined in the [paths] section of /etc/mercurial/hgrc
and $HOME/.hgrc.  If run inside a repository, .hg/hgrc is used, too.

pull [-u] [-f] [-r REV]... [-e CMD] [--remotecmd CMD] [SOURCE]

Pull changes from a remote repository to a local one.

This finds all changes from the repository at the specified path
or URL and adds them to the local repository. By default, this
does not update the copy of the project in the working directory.

Valid URLs are of the form:

local/filesystem/path (or file://local/filesystem/path)
http://[user@]host[:port]/[path]
https://[user@]host[:port]/[path]
ssh://[user@]host[:port]/[path]
static-http://host[:port]/[path]

Paths in the local filesystem can either point to Mercurial
repositories or to bundle files (as created by 'hg bundle' or
'hg incoming --bundle'). The static-http:// protocol, albeit slow,
allows access to a Mercurial repository where you simply use a web
server to publish the .hg directory as static content.

An optional identifier after # indicates a particular branch, tag,
or changeset to pull.

Some notes about using SSH with Mercurial:
- SSH requires an accessible shell account on the destination machine
  and a copy of hg in the remote path or specified with as remotecmd.
- path is relative to the remote user's home directory by default.
  Use an extra slash at the start of a path to specify an absolute path:
    ssh://example.com//tmp/repository
- Mercurial doesn't use its own compression via SSH; the right thing
  to do is to configure it in your ~/.ssh/config, e.g.:
    Host *.mylocalnetwork.example.com
      Compression no
    Host *
      Compression yes
  Alternatively specify "ssh -C" as your ssh command in your hgrc or
  with the --ssh command line option.

options:
-u, --update  update to new tip if changesets were pulled
-f, --force   run even when remote repository is unrelated
-r, --rev     a specific revision up to which you would like to
              pull
-e, --ssh     specify ssh command to use
--remotecmd   specify hg command to run on the remote side

push [-f] [-r REV]... [-e CMD] [--remotecmd CMD] [DEST]

Push changes from the local repository to the given destination.

This is the symmetrical operation for pull. It helps to move
changes from the current repository to a different one. If the
destination is local this is identical to a pull in that directory
from the current one.

By default, push will refuse to run if it detects the result would
increase the number of remote heads. This generally indicates the
the client has forgotten to sync and merge before pushing.

Valid URLs are of the form:

local/filesystem/path (or file://local/filesystem/path)
ssh://[user@]host[:port]/[path]
http://[user@]host[:port]/[path]
https://[user@]host[:port]/[path]

An optional identifier after # indicates a particular branch, tag,
or changeset to push.

Look at the help text for the pull command for important details
about ssh:// URLs.

Pushing to http:// and https:// URLs is only possible, if this
feature is explicitly enabled on the remote Mercurial server.

options:
-f, --force  force push
-r, --rev    a specific revision you would like to push
-e, --ssh    specify ssh command to use
--remotecmd  specify hg command to run on the remote side

recover

Recover from an interrupted commit or pull.

This command tries to fix the repository status after an interrupted
operation. It should only be necessary when Mercurial suggests it.

remove [OPTION]... FILE...

Schedule the indicated files for removal from the repository.

This only removes files from the current branch, not from the
entire project history.  If the files still exist in the working
directory, they will be deleted from it.  If invoked with --after,
files are marked as removed, but not actually unlinked unless --force
is also given. Without exact file names, --after will only mark
files as removed if they are no longer in the working directory.

This command schedules the files to be removed at the next commit.
To undo a remove before that, see hg revert.

Modified files and added files are not removed by default.  To
remove them, use the -f/--force option.

options:
-A, --after    record remove that has already occurred
-f, --force    remove file even if modified
-I, --include  include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude  exclude names matching the given patterns

aliases: rm

rename [OPTION]... SOURCE... DEST

Mark dest as copies of sources; mark sources for deletion. If dest is a directory, copies are put in that directory. If dest is a file, there can only be one source.

By default, this command copies the contents of files as they
stand in the working directory.  If invoked with --after, the
operation is recorded, but no copying is performed.

This command takes effect in the next commit. To undo a rename
before that, see hg revert.

options:
-A, --after    record a rename that has already occurred
-f, --force    forcibly copy over an existing managed file
-I, --include  include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude  exclude names matching the given patterns
-n, --dry-run  do not perform actions, just print output

aliases: mv

revert [OPTION]... [-r REV] [NAME]...

With no revision specified, revert the named files or directories to the contents they had in the parent of the working directory. This restores the contents of the affected files to an unmodified state and unschedules adds, removes, copies, and renames. If the working directory has two parents, you must explicitly specify the revision to revert to.

Modified files are saved with a .orig suffix before reverting.
To disable these backups, use --no-backup.

Using the -r option, revert the given files or directories to their
contents as of a specific revision. This can be helpful to "roll
back" some or all of a change that should not have been committed.

Revert modifies the working directory.  It does not commit any
changes, or change the parent of the working directory.  If you
revert to a revision other than the parent of the working
directory, the reverted files will thus appear modified
afterwards.

If a file has been deleted, it is recreated.  If the executable
mode of a file was changed, it is reset.

If names are given, all files matching the names are reverted.

If no arguments are given, no files are reverted.

options:
-a, --all      revert all changes when no arguments given
-d, --date     tipmost revision matching date
-r, --rev      revision to revert to
--no-backup    do not save backup copies of files
-I, --include  include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude  exclude names matching the given patterns
-n, --dry-run  do not perform actions, just print output

rollback

Roll back the last transaction in this repository, restoring the project to its state prior to the transaction.

Transactions are used to encapsulate the effects of all commands
that create new changesets or propagate existing changesets into a
repository. For example, the following commands are transactional,
and their effects can be rolled back:

commit
import
pull
push (with this repository as destination)
unbundle

This command should be used with care. There is only one level of
rollback, and there is no way to undo a rollback. It will also
restore the dirstate at the time of the last transaction, which
may lose subsequent dirstate changes.

This command is not intended for use on public repositories. Once
changes are visible for pull by other users, rolling a transaction
back locally is ineffective (someone else may already have pulled
the changes). Furthermore, a race is possible with readers of the
repository; for example an in-progress pull from the repository
may fail if a rollback is performed.

root

Print the root directory of the current repository.

serve [OPTION]...

Start a local HTTP repository browser and pull server.

By default, the server logs accesses to stdout and errors to
stderr.  Use the "-A" and "-E" options to log to files.

options:
-A, --accesslog   name of access log file to write to
-d, --daemon      run server in background
--daemon-pipefds  used internally by daemon mode
-E, --errorlog    name of error log file to write to
-p, --port        port to use (default: 8000)
-a, --address     address to use
-n, --name        name to show in web pages (default: working dir)
--webdir-conf     name of the webdir config file (serve more than
                  one repo)
--pid-file        name of file to write process ID to
--stdio           for remote clients
-t, --templates   web templates to use
--style           template style to use
-6, --ipv6        use IPv6 in addition to IPv4

showconfig [-u] [NAME]...

With no args, print names and values of all config items.

With one arg of the form section.name, print just the value of
that config item.

With multiple args, print names and values of all config items
with matching section names.

options:
-u, --untrusted  show untrusted configuration options

aliases: debugconfig

status [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Show status of files in the repository. If names are given, only files that match are shown. Files that are clean or ignored, are not listed unless -c (clean), -i (ignored) or -A is given.

NOTE: status may appear to disagree with diff if permissions have
changed or a merge has occurred. The standard diff format does not
report permission changes and diff only reports changes relative
to one merge parent.

If one revision is given, it is used as the base revision.
If two revisions are given, the difference between them is shown.

The codes used to show the status of files are:
M = modified
A = added
R = removed
C = clean
! = deleted, but still tracked
? = not tracked
I = ignored (not shown by default)
  = the previous added file was copied from here

options:
-A, --all        show status of all files
-m, --modified   show only modified files
-a, --added      show only added files
-r, --removed    show only removed files
-d, --deleted    show only deleted (but tracked) files
-c, --clean      show only files without changes
-u, --unknown    show only unknown (not tracked) files
-i, --ignored    show only ignored files
-n, --no-status  hide status prefix
-C, --copies     show source of copied files
-0, --print0     end filenames with NUL, for use with xargs
--rev            show difference from revision
-I, --include    include names matching the given patterns
-X, --exclude    exclude names matching the given patterns

aliases: st

tag [-l] [-m TEXT] [-d DATE] [-u USER] [-r REV] NAME

Name a particular revision using <name>.

Tags are used to name particular revisions of the repository and are
very useful to compare different revision, to go back to significant
earlier versions or to mark branch points as releases, etc.

If no revision is given, the parent of the working directory is used,
or tip if no revision is checked out.

To facilitate version control, distribution, and merging of tags,
they are stored as a file named ".hgtags" which is managed
similarly to other project files and can be hand-edited if
necessary.  The file '.hg/localtags' is used for local tags (not
shared among repositories).

options:
-f, --force    replace existing tag
-l, --local    make the tag local
-m, --message  message for tag commit log entry
-d, --date     record datecode as commit date
-u, --user     record user as commiter
-r, --rev      revision to tag
--remove       remove a tag

tags

List the repository tags.

This lists both regular and local tags.

tip [-p]

Show the tip revision.

options:
--style      display using template map file
-p, --patch  show patch
--template   display with template

unbundle [-u] FILE...

Apply one or more compressed changegroup files generated by the bundle command.

options:
-u, --update  update to new tip if changesets were unbundled

update [-C] [-d DATE] [[-r] REV]

Update the working directory to the specified revision, or the tip of the current branch if none is specified.

If there are no outstanding changes in the working directory and
there is a linear relationship between the current version and the
requested version, the result is the requested version.

To merge the working directory with another revision, use the
merge command.

By default, update will refuse to run if doing so would require
discarding local changes.

options:
-C, --clean  overwrite locally modified files
-d, --date   tipmost revision matching date
-r, --rev    revision

aliases: up checkout co

verify

Verify the integrity of the current repository.

This will perform an extensive check of the repository's
integrity, validating the hashes and checksums of each entry in
the changelog, manifest, and tracked files, as well as the
integrity of their crosslinks and indices.

version

output version and copyright information
 

DATE FORMATS

Some commands (backout, commit, tag) allow the user to specify a date.
Many date formats are acceptible. Here are some examples:

"Wed Dec 6 13:18:29 2006" (local timezone assumed)
"Dec 6 13:18 -0600" (year assumed, time offset provided)
"Dec 6 13:18 UTC" (UTC and GMT are aliases for +0000)
"Dec 6" (midnight)
"13:18" (today assumed)
"3:39" (3:39AM assumed)
"3:39pm" (15:39)
"2006-12-6 13:18:29" (ISO 8601 format)
"2006-12-6 13:18"
"2006-12-6"
"12-6"
"12/6"
"12/6/6" (Dec 6 2006)

Lastly, there is Mercurial's internal format:

"1165432709 0" (Wed Dec 6 13:18:29 2006 UTC)

This is the internal representation format for dates. unixtime is
the number of seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 00:00 UTC). offset
is the offset of the local timezone, in seconds west of UTC (negative
if the timezone is east of UTC).
 

FILE NAME PATTERNS

Mercurial accepts several notations for identifying one or more
files at a time.

By default, Mercurial treats filenames as shell-style extended
glob patterns.

Alternate pattern notations must be specified explicitly.

To use a plain path name without any pattern matching, start a
name with "path:".  These path names must match completely, from
the root of the current repository.

To use an extended glob, start a name with "glob:".  Globs are
rooted at the current directory; a glob such as "*.c" will match
files ending in ".c" in the current directory only.

The supported glob syntax extensions are "**" to match any string
across path separators, and "{a,b}" to mean "a or b".

To use a Perl/Python regular expression, start a name with "re:".
Regexp pattern matching is anchored at the root of the repository.

Plain examples:

path:foo/bar   a name bar in a directory named foo in the root of
               the repository
path:path:name a file or directory named "path:name"

Glob examples:

glob:*.c       any name ending in ".c" in the current directory
*.c            any name ending in ".c" in the current directory
**.c           any name ending in ".c" in the current directory, or
               any subdirectory
foo/*.c        any name ending in ".c" in the directory foo
foo/**.c       any name ending in ".c" in the directory foo, or any
               subdirectory

Regexp examples:

re:.*\.c$      any name ending in ".c", anywhere in the repository
 

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

HG

Path to the hg executable, automatically passed when running hooks or external tools. Falls back to hg if unset and the value can't be autodetected, e.g. when Mercurial is run as a Python module.

HGEDITOR

This is the name of the editor to use when committing. Defaults to the value of EDITOR.

(deprecated, use .hgrc)

HGENCODING

This overrides the default locale setting detected by Mercurial. This setting is used to convert data including usernames, changeset descriptions, tag names, and branches. This setting can be overridden with the --encoding command-line option.

HGENCODINGMODE

This sets Mercurial's behavior for handling unknown characters while transcoding user inputs. The default is "strict", which causes Mercurial to abort if it can't translate a character. Other settings include "replace", which replaces unknown characters, and "ignore", which drops them. This setting can be overridden with the --encodingmode command-line option.

HGMERGE

An executable to use for resolving merge conflicts. The program will be executed with three arguments: local file, remote file, ancestor file.

The default program is "hgmerge", which is a shell script provided
by Mercurial with some sensible defaults.

(deprecated, use .hgrc)

HGRCPATH

A list of files or directories to search for hgrc files. Item separator is ":" on Unix, ";" on Windows. If HGRCPATH is not set, platform default search path is used. If empty, only .hg/hgrc of current repository is read.

For each element in path, if a directory, all entries in directory
ending with ".rc" are added to path.  Else, element itself is
added to path.

HGUSER

This is the string used for the author of a commit.

(deprecated, use .hgrc)

EMAIL

If HGUSER is not set, this will be used as the author for a commit.

LOGNAME

If neither HGUSER nor EMAIL is set, LOGNAME will be used (with @hostname appended) as the author value for a commit.

EDITOR

This is the name of the editor used in the hgmerge script. It will be used for commit messages if HGEDITOR isn't set. Defaults to vi.

PYTHONPATH

This is used by Python to find imported modules and may need to be set appropriately if Mercurial is not installed system-wide.
 

SPECIFYING SINGLE REVISIONS

Mercurial accepts several notations for identifying individual
revisions.

A plain integer is treated as a revision number.  Negative
integers are treated as offsets from the tip, with -1 denoting the
tip.

A 40-digit hexadecimal string is treated as a unique revision
identifier.

A hexadecimal string less than 40 characters long is treated as a
unique revision identifier, and referred to as a short-form
identifier.  A short-form identifier is only valid if it is the
prefix of one full-length identifier.

Any other string is treated as a tag name, which is a symbolic
name associated with a revision identifier.  Tag names may not
contain the ":" character.

The reserved name "tip" is a special tag that always identifies
the most recent revision.
 

SPECIFYING MULTIPLE REVISIONS

When Mercurial accepts more than one revision, they may be
specified individually, or provided as a continuous range,
separated by the ":" character.

The syntax of range notation is [BEGIN]:[END], where BEGIN and END
are revision identifiers.  Both BEGIN and END are optional.  If
BEGIN is not specified, it defaults to revision number 0.  If END
is not specified, it defaults to the tip.  The range ":" thus
means "all revisions".

If BEGIN is greater than END, revisions are treated in reverse
order.

A range acts as a closed interval.  This means that a range of 3:5
gives 3, 4 and 5.  Similarly, a range of 4:2 gives 4, 3, and 2.
 

FILES

.hgignore

This file contains regular expressions (one per line) that describe file names that should be ignored by hg. For details, see hgignore(5).

.hgtags

This file contains changeset hash values and text tag names (one of each separated by spaces) that correspond to tagged versions of the repository contents.

/etc/mercurial/hgrc, $HOME/.hgrc, .hg/hgrc

This file contains defaults and configuration. Values in .hg/hgrc override those in $HOME/.hgrc, and these override settings made in the global /etc/mercurial/hgrc configuration. See hgrc(5) for details of the contents and format of these files.
Some commands (e.g. revert) produce backup files ending in .orig, if the .orig file already exists and is not tracked by Mercurial, it will be overwritten.

 

BUGS

Probably lots, please post them to the mailing list (See Resources below) when you find them.

 

SEE ALSO

hgignore(5), hgrc(5)

 

AUTHOR

Written by Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com>

 

RESOURCES

Main Web Site[1]

Source code repository[2]

Mailing list[3]

 

COPYING

Copyright (C) 2005-2007 Matt Mackall. Free use of this software is granted under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

 

REFERENCES

1.
Main Web Site
http://selenic.com/mercurial
2.
Source code repository
http://selenic.com/hg
3.
Mailing list
http://selenic.com/mailman/listinfo/mercurial


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
COMMAND ELEMENTS
OPTIONS
COMMANDS
DATE FORMATS
FILE NAME PATTERNS
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
SPECIFYING SINGLE REVISIONS
SPECIFYING MULTIPLE REVISIONS
FILES
BUGS
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
RESOURCES
COPYING
REFERENCES




Random Man Pages:
ioctl
dup2
intro
BIO_puts