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TROFF

Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: 13 October 2003
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NAME

troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system  

SYNOPSIS


troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -d cs ] [ -f fam ] [ -F dir ] [ -I dir ] [ -m name ] [ -M dir ] [ -n num ] [ -o list ] [ -r cn ] [ -T name ] [ -w name ] [ -W name ] [ files... ]
It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.  

DESCRIPTION

This manual page describes the GNU version of troff. It is part of the groff document formatting system. It is functionally compatible with UNIX troff, but has many extensions, see groff_diff(7). Usually it should be invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the appropriate options.  

OPTIONS

-a
Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.
-b
Print a backtrace with each warning or error message. This backtrace should help track down the cause of the error. The line numbers given in the backtrace may not always be correct, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by as or am requests.
-c
Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).
-C
Enable compatibility mode.
-dcs

-dname=s
Define c or name to be a string s; c must be a one letter name.
-E
Inhibit all error messages of troff. Note that this doesn't affect messages output to standard error by macro packages using the tm or tm1 requests.
-ffam
Use fam as the default font family.
-Fdir
Search in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirectories devname (name is the name of the device) and there for the DESC file and font files. dir is scanned before all other font directories.
-i
Read the standard input after all the named input files have been processed.
-Idir
This option may be used to specify a directory to search for files (both those on the command line and those named in .psbb requests). The current directory is always searched first. This option may be specified more than once; the directories will be searched in the order specified. No directory search is performed for files specified using an absolute path.
-mname
Read in the file name.tmac. If it isn't found, try tmac.name instead. It will be first searched for in directories given with the -M command line option, then in directories given in the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current directory (only if in unsafe mode), the home directory, /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, and /usr/share/groff/1.19.2/tmac.
-Mdir
Search directory (or directory path) dir for macro files. This is scanned before all other macro directories.
-nnum
Number the first page num.
-olist
Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n- means print every page from n. troff will exit after printing the last page in the list.
-rcn

-rname=n
Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character name; n can be any troff numeric expression.
-R
Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.
-Tname
Prepare output for device name, rather than the default ps; see groff(1) for a more detailed description.
-U
Unsafe mode. This will enable the following requests: open, opena, pso, sy, and pi. For security reasons, these potentially dangerous requests are disabled otherwise. It will also add the current directory to the macro search path.
-v
Print the version number.
-wname
Enable warning name. Available warnings are described in the section WARNINGS below. For example, to enable all warnings, use -w all. Multiple -w options are allowed.
-Wname
Inhibit warning name. Multiple -W options are allowed.
-z
Suppress formatted output.
 

WARNINGS

The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the following categories. The name associated with each warning is used by the -w and -W options; the number is used by the warn request, and by the .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.
BitCodeWarningBitCodeWarning

01char101024reg
12number112048tab
24break124096right-brace
38delim138192missing
416el1416384input
532scale1532768escape
664range1665536space
7128syntax17131072font
8256di18262144ig
9512mac19524288color
break 4
In fill mode, lines which could not be broken so that their length was less than the line length. This is enabled by default.
char 1
Non-existent characters. This is enabled by default.
color 524288
Color related warnings.
delim 8
Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.
di 256
Use of di or da without an argument when there is no current diversion.
el 16
Use of the el request with no matching ie request.
escape 32768
Unrecognized escape sequences. When an unrecognized escape sequence is encountered, the escape character is ignored.
font 131072
Non-existent fonts. This is enabled by default.
ig 262144
Invalid escapes in text ignored with the ig request. These are conditions that are errors when they do not occur in ignored text.
input 16384
Invalid input characters.
mac 512
Use of undefined strings, macros and diversions. When an undefined string, macro or diversion is used, that string is automatically defined as empty. So, in most cases, at most one warning will be given for each name.
missing 8192
Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.
number 2
Invalid numeric expressions. This is enabled by default.
range 64
Out of range arguments.
reg 1024
Use of undefined number registers. When an undefined number register is used, that register is automatically defined to have a value of~0. So, in most cases, at most one warning will be given for use of a particular name.
right-brace 4096
Use of [rs]} where a number was expected.
scale 32
Meaningless scaling indicators.
space 65536
Missing space between a request or macro and its argument. This warning will be given when an undefined name longer than two characters is encountered, and the first two characters of the name make a defined name. The request or macro will not be invoked. When this warning is given, no macro is automatically defined. This is enabled by default. This warning will never occur in compatibility mode.
syntax 128
Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.
tab 2048
Inappropriate use of a tab character. Either use of a tab character where a number was expected, or use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument. There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:
all
All warnings except di, mac, and reg. It is intended that this covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro packages.
w
All warnings.
 

ENVIRONMENT

GROFF_TMAC_PATH
A colon separated list of directories in which to search for macro files. troff will scan directories given in the -M option before these, and in standard directories (current directory if in unsafe mode, home directory, /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/1.19.2/tmac) after these.
GROFF_TYPESETTER
Default device.
GROFF_FONT_PATH
A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the devname directory. troff will scan directories given in the -F option before these, and in standard directories (/usr/share/groff/site-font, /usr/share/groff/1.19.2/font, /usr/lib/font) after these.
 

FILES

u+3n
/usr/share/groff/1.19.2/tmac/troffrc Initialization file (called before any other macro package).
/usr/share/groff/1.19.2/tmac/troffrc-end
Initialization file (called after any other macro package).
/usr/share/groff/1.19.2/tmac/name.tmac

/usr/share/groff/1.19.2/tmac/tmac.name
Macro files
/usr/share/groff/1.19.2/font/devname/DESC
Device description file for device name.
/usr/share/groff/1.19.2/font/devname/F
Font file for font F of device name. Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the -U option is given). Use the -M command line option or the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these directories to the search path if necessary.
 

AUTHOR

Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License) version 1.1 or later. You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the This document was written by James Clark, with modifications from and This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.  

SEE ALSO

groff(1)
The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.
groff(7)
A description of the groff language, including a short but complete reference of all predefined requests, registers, and escapes of plain groff. From the command line, this is called by
man 7 groff
groff_diff(7)
The differences of the groff language and the classical troff language. Currently, this is the most actual document of the groff system.
roff(7)
An overview over groff and other roff systems, including pointers to further related documentation. The groff info file, cf. info(1), presents all groff documentation within a single document.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
WARNINGS
ENVIRONMENT
FILES
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO




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