CONNECTSection: Linux Programmer's Manual (2)
Index Return to Main Contents
NAMEconnect - initiate a connection on a socket
#include <sys/socket.h> int connect(int sockfd, const struct sockaddr *serv_addr, socklen_t addrlen);
DESCRIPTIONThe connect() system call connects the socket referred to by the file descriptor sockfd to the address specified by serv_addr. The addrlen argument specifies the size of serv_addr. The format of the address in serv_addr is determined by the address space of the socket sockfd; see socket(2) for further details.
If the socket sockfd is of type SOCK_DGRAM then serv_addr is the address to which datagrams are sent by default, and the only address from which datagrams are received. If the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_SEQPACKET, this call attempts to make a connection to the socket that is bound to the address specified by serv_addr.
Generally, connection-based protocol sockets may successfully connect() only once; connectionless protocol sockets may use connect() multiple times to change their association. Connectionless sockets may dissolve the association by connecting to an address with the sa_family member of sockaddr set to AF_UNSPEC.
RETURN VALUEIf the connection or binding succeeds, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
ERRORSThe following are general socket errors only. There may be other domain-specific error codes.
- For Unix domain sockets, which are identified by pathname: Write permission is denied on the socket file, or search permission is denied for one of the directories in the path prefix. (See also path_resolution(7).)
- EACCES, EPERM
- The user tried to connect to a broadcast address without having the socket broadcast flag enabled or the connection request failed because of a local firewall rule.
- Local address is already in use.
- The passed address didn't have the correct address family in its sa_family field.
- No more free local ports or insufficient entries in the routing cache. For PF_INET see the net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range sysctl in ip(7) on how to increase the number of local ports.
- The socket is non-blocking and a previous connection attempt has not yet been completed.
- The file descriptor is not a valid index in the descriptor table.
- No one listening on the remote address.
- The socket structure address is outside the user's address space.
- The socket is non-blocking and the connection cannot be completed immediately. It is possible to select(2) or poll(2) for completion by selecting the socket for writing. After select(2) indicates writability, use getsockopt(2) to read the SO_ERROR option at level SOL_SOCKET to determine whether connect() completed successfully (SO_ERROR is zero) or unsuccessfully (SO_ERROR is one of the usual error codes listed here, explaining the reason for the failure).
- The system call was interrupted by a signal that was caught.
- The socket is already connected.
- Network is unreachable.
- The file descriptor is not associated with a socket.
- Timeout while attempting connection. The server may be too busy to accept new connections. Note that for IP sockets the timeout may be very long when syncookies are enabled on the server.
CONFORMING TOSVr4, 4.4BSD, (the connect() function first appeared in 4.2BSD), POSIX.1-2001.
NOTESThe third argument of connect() is in reality an int (and this is what 4.x BSD and libc4 and libc5 have). Some POSIX confusion resulted in the present socklen_t, also used by glibc. See also accept(2).
BUGSUnconnecting a socket by calling connect() with a AF_UNSPEC address is not yet implemented.
EXAMPLEAn example of the use of connect() is shown in getaddrinfo(3).
SEE ALSOaccept(2), bind(2), getsockname(2), listen(2), socket(2), path_resolution(7)