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POSIX

Section: Perl Programmers Reference Guide (3)
Updated: 2001-09-21
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NAME

POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1  

SYNOPSIS

    use POSIX;
    use POSIX qw(setsid);
    use POSIX qw(:errno_h :fcntl_h);

    printf "EINTR is %d\n", EINTR;

    $sess_id = POSIX::setsid();

    $fd = POSIX::open($path, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_WRONLY, 0644);
        # note: that's a filedescriptor, *NOT* a filehandle

 

DESCRIPTION

The POSIX module permits you to access all (or nearly all) the standard POSIX 1003.1 identifiers. Many of these identifiers have been given Perl-ish interfaces.

Everything is exported by default with the exception of any POSIX functions with the same name as a built-in Perl function, such as "abs", "alarm", "rmdir", "write", etc.., which will be exported only if you ask for them explicitly. This is an unfortunate backwards compatibility feature. You can stop the exporting by saying "use POSIX ()" and then use the fully qualified names (ie. "POSIX::SEEK_END").

This document gives a condensed list of the features available in the POSIX module. Consult your operating system's manpages for general information on most features. Consult perlfunc for functions which are noted as being identical to Perl's builtin functions.

The first section describes POSIX functions from the 1003.1 specification. The second section describes some classes for signal objects, TTY objects, and other miscellaneous objects. The remaining sections list various constants and macros in an organization which roughly follows IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993.  

NOTE

The POSIX module is probably the most complex Perl module supplied with the standard distribution. It incorporates autoloading, namespace games, and dynamic loading of code that's in Perl, C, or both. It's a great source of wisdom.  

CAVEATS

A few functions are not implemented because they are C specific. If you attempt to call these, they will print a message telling you that they aren't implemented, and suggest using the Perl equivalent should one exist. For example, trying to access the setjmp() call will elicit the message ``setjmp() is C-specific: use eval {} instead''.

Furthermore, some evil vendors will claim 1003.1 compliance, but in fact are not so: they will not pass the PCTS (POSIX Compliance Test Suites). For example, one vendor may not define EDEADLK, or the semantics of the errno values set by open(2) might not be quite right. Perl does not attempt to verify POSIX compliance. That means you can currently successfully say ``use POSIX'', and then later in your program you find that your vendor has been lax and there's no usable ICANON macro after all. This could be construed to be a bug.  

FUNCTIONS

_exit
This is identical to the C function "_exit()". It exits the program immediately which means among other things buffered I/O is not flushed.

Note that when using threads and in Linux this is not a good way to exit a thread because in Linux processes and threads are kind of the same thing (Note: while this is the situation in early 2003 there are projects under way to have threads with more POSIXly semantics in Linux). If you want not to return from a thread, detach the thread.

abort
This is identical to the C function "abort()". It terminates the process with a "SIGABRT" signal unless caught by a signal handler or if the handler does not return normally (it e.g. does a "longjmp").
abs
This is identical to Perl's builtin "abs()" function, returning the absolute value of its numerical argument.
access
Determines the accessibility of a file.

        if( POSIX::access( "/", &POSIX::R_OK ) ){
                print "have read permission\n";
        }

Returns "undef" on failure. Note: do not use "access()" for security purposes. Between the "access()" call and the operation you are preparing for the permissions might change: a classic race condition.

acos
This is identical to the C function "acos()", returning the arcus cosine of its numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.
alarm
This is identical to Perl's builtin "alarm()" function, either for arming or disarming the "SIGARLM" timer.
asctime
This is identical to the C function "asctime()". It returns a string of the form

        "Fri Jun  2 18:22:13 2000\n\0"

and it is called thusly

        $asctime = asctime($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year,
                           $wday, $yday, $isdst);

The $mon is zero-based: January equals 0. The $year is 1900-based: 2001 equals 101. The $wday, $yday, and $isdst default to zero (and the first two are usually ignored anyway).

asin
This is identical to the C function "asin()", returning the arcus sine of its numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.
assert
Unimplemented, but you can use ``die'' in perlfunc and the Carp module to achieve similar things.
atan
This is identical to the C function "atan()", returning the arcus tangent of its numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.
atan2
This is identical to Perl's builtin "atan2()" function, returning the arcus tangent defined by its two numerical arguments, the y coordinate and the x coordinate. See also Math::Trig.
atexit
atexit() is C-specific: use "END {}" instead, see perlsub.
atof
atof() is C-specific. Perl converts strings to numbers transparently. If you need to force a scalar to a number, add a zero to it.
atoi
atoi() is C-specific. Perl converts strings to numbers transparently. If you need to force a scalar to a number, add a zero to it. If you need to have just the integer part, see ``int'' in perlfunc.
atol
atol() is C-specific. Perl converts strings to numbers transparently. If you need to force a scalar to a number, add a zero to it. If you need to have just the integer part, see ``int'' in perlfunc.
bsearch
bsearch() not supplied. For doing binary search on wordlists, see Search::Dict.
calloc
calloc() is C-specific. Perl does memory management transparently.
ceil
This is identical to the C function "ceil()", returning the smallest integer value greater than or equal to the given numerical argument.
chdir
This is identical to Perl's builtin "chdir()" function, allowing one to change the working (default) directory, see ``chdir'' in perlfunc.
chmod
This is identical to Perl's builtin "chmod()" function, allowing one to change file and directory permissions, see ``chmod'' in perlfunc.
chown
This is identical to Perl's builtin "chown()" function, allowing one to change file and directory owners and groups, see ``chown'' in perlfunc.
clearerr
Use the method "IO::Handle::clearerr()" instead, to reset the error state (if any) and EOF state (if any) of the given stream.
clock
This is identical to the C function "clock()", returning the amount of spent processor time in microseconds.
close
Close the file. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
        POSIX::close( $fd );

Returns "undef" on failure.

See also ``close'' in perlfunc.

closedir
This is identical to Perl's builtin "closedir()" function for closing a directory handle, see ``closedir'' in perlfunc.
cos
This is identical to Perl's builtin "cos()" function, for returning the cosine of its numerical argument, see ``cos'' in perlfunc. See also Math::Trig.
cosh
This is identical to the C function "cosh()", for returning the hyperbolic cosine of its numeric argument. See also Math::Trig.
creat
Create a new file. This returns a file descriptor like the ones returned by "POSIX::open". Use "POSIX::close" to close the file.

        $fd = POSIX::creat( "foo", 0611 );
        POSIX::close( $fd );

See also ``sysopen'' in perlfunc and its "O_CREAT" flag.

ctermid
Generates the path name for the controlling terminal.

        $path = POSIX::ctermid();

ctime
This is identical to the C function "ctime()" and equivalent to "asctime(localtime(...))", see ``asctime'' and ``localtime''.
cuserid
Get the login name of the owner of the current process.

        $name = POSIX::cuserid();

difftime
This is identical to the C function "difftime()", for returning the time difference (in seconds) between two times (as returned by "time()"), see ``time''.
div
div() is C-specific, use ``int'' in perlfunc on the usual "/" division and the modulus "%".
dup
This is similar to the C function "dup()", for duplicating a file descriptor.

This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

Returns "undef" on failure.

dup2
This is similar to the C function "dup2()", for duplicating a file descriptor to an another known file descriptor.

This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

Returns "undef" on failure.

errno
Returns the value of errno.

        $errno = POSIX::errno();

This identical to the numerical values of the $!, see ``$ERRNO'' in perlvar.

execl
execl() is C-specific, see ``exec'' in perlfunc.
execle
execle() is C-specific, see ``exec'' in perlfunc.
execlp
execlp() is C-specific, see ``exec'' in perlfunc.
execv
execv() is C-specific, see ``exec'' in perlfunc.
execve
execve() is C-specific, see ``exec'' in perlfunc.
execvp
execvp() is C-specific, see ``exec'' in perlfunc.
exit
This is identical to Perl's builtin "exit()" function for exiting the program, see ``exit'' in perlfunc.
exp
This is identical to Perl's builtin "exp()" function for returning the exponent (e-based) of the numerical argument, see ``exp'' in perlfunc.
fabs
This is identical to Perl's builtin "abs()" function for returning the absolute value of the numerical argument, see ``abs'' in perlfunc.
fclose
Use method "IO::Handle::close()" instead, or see ``close'' in perlfunc.
fcntl
This is identical to Perl's builtin "fcntl()" function, see ``fcntl'' in perlfunc.
fdopen
Use method "IO::Handle::new_from_fd()" instead, or see ``open'' in perlfunc.
feof
Use method "IO::Handle::eof()" instead, or see ``eof'' in perlfunc.
ferror
Use method "IO::Handle::error()" instead.
fflush
Use method "IO::Handle::flush()" instead. See also ``$OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH'' in perlvar.
fgetc
Use method "IO::Handle::getc()" instead, or see ``read'' in perlfunc.
fgetpos
Use method "IO::Seekable::getpos()" instead, or see ``seek'' in L.
fgets
Use method "IO::Handle::gets()" instead. Similar to <>, also known as ``readline'' in perlfunc.
fileno
Use method "IO::Handle::fileno()" instead, or see ``fileno'' in perlfunc.
floor
This is identical to the C function "floor()", returning the largest integer value less than or equal to the numerical argument.
fmod
This is identical to the C function "fmod()".

        $r = fmod($x, $y);

It returns the remainder "$r = $x - $n*$y", where "$n = trunc($x/$y)". The $r has the same sign as $x and magnitude (absolute value) less than the magnitude of $y.

fopen
Use method "IO::File::open()" instead, or see ``open'' in perlfunc.
fork
This is identical to Perl's builtin "fork()" function for duplicating the current process, see ``fork'' in perlfunc and perlfork if you are in Windows.
fpathconf
Retrieves the value of a configurable limit on a file or directory. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

The following will determine the maximum length of the longest allowable pathname on the filesystem which holds "/var/foo".

        $fd = POSIX::open( "/var/foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
        $path_max = POSIX::fpathconf( $fd, &POSIX::_PC_PATH_MAX );

Returns "undef" on failure.

fprintf
fprintf() is C-specific, see ``printf'' in perlfunc instead.
fputc
fputc() is C-specific, see ``print'' in perlfunc instead.
fputs
fputs() is C-specific, see ``print'' in perlfunc instead.
fread
fread() is C-specific, see ``read'' in perlfunc instead.
free
free() is C-specific. Perl does memory management transparently.
freopen
freopen() is C-specific, see ``open'' in perlfunc instead.
frexp
Return the mantissa and exponent of a floating-point number.

        ($mantissa, $exponent) = POSIX::frexp( 1.234e56 );

fscanf
fscanf() is C-specific, use <> and regular expressions instead.
fseek
Use method "IO::Seekable::seek()" instead, or see ``seek'' in perlfunc.
fsetpos
Use method "IO::Seekable::setpos()" instead, or seek ``seek'' in perlfunc.
fstat
Get file status. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open". The data returned is identical to the data from Perl's builtin "stat" function.

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
        @stats = POSIX::fstat( $fd );

fsync
Use method "IO::Handle::sync()" instead.
ftell
Use method "IO::Seekable::tell()" instead, or see ``tell'' in perlfunc.
fwrite
fwrite() is C-specific, see ``print'' in perlfunc instead.
getc
This is identical to Perl's builtin "getc()" function, see ``getc'' in perlfunc.
getchar
Returns one character from STDIN. Identical to Perl's "getc()", see ``getc'' in perlfunc.
getcwd
Returns the name of the current working directory. See also Cwd.
getegid
Returns the effective group identifier. Similar to Perl' s builtin variable $(, see ``$EGID'' in perlvar.
getenv
Returns the value of the specified environment variable. The same information is available through the %ENV array.
geteuid
Returns the effective user identifier. Identical to Perl's builtin $> variable, see ``$EUID'' in perlvar.
getgid
Returns the user's real group identifier. Similar to Perl's builtin variable $), see ``$GID'' in perlvar.
getgrgid
This is identical to Perl's builtin "getgrgid()" function for returning group entries by group identifiers, see ``getgrgid'' in perlfunc.
getgrnam
This is identical to Perl's builtin "getgrnam()" function for returning group entries by group names, see ``getgrnam'' in perlfunc.
getgroups
Returns the ids of the user's supplementary groups. Similar to Perl's builtin variable $), see ``$GID'' in perlvar.
getlogin
This is identical to Perl's builtin "getlogin()" function for returning the user name associated with the current session, see ``getlogin'' in perlfunc.
getpgrp
This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpgrp()" function for returning the process group identifier of the current process, see ``getpgrp'' in perlfunc.
getpid
Returns the process identifier. Identical to Perl's builtin variable $$, see ``$PID'' in perlvar.
getppid
This is identical to Perl's builtin "getppid()" function for returning the process identifier of the parent process of the current process , see ``getppid'' in perlfunc.
getpwnam
This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpwnam()" function for returning user entries by user names, see ``getpwnam'' in perlfunc.
getpwuid
This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpwuid()" function for returning user entries by user identifiers, see ``getpwuid'' in perlfunc.
gets
Returns one line from "STDIN", similar to <>, also known as the "readline()" function, see ``readline'' in perlfunc.

NOTE: if you have C programs that still use "gets()", be very afraid. The "gets()" function is a source of endless grief because it has no buffer overrun checks. It should never be used. The "fgets()" function should be preferred instead.

getuid
Returns the user's identifier. Identical to Perl's builtin $< variable, see ``$UID'' in perlvar.
gmtime
This is identical to Perl's builtin "gmtime()" function for converting seconds since the epoch to a date in Greenwich Mean Time, see ``gmtime'' in perlfunc.
isalnum
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isalnum". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:alnum:]]/" construct instead, or possibly the "/\w/" construct.
isalpha
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isalpha". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:alpha:]]/" construct instead.
isatty
Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified filehandle is connected to a tty. Similar to the "-t" operator, see ``-X'' in perlfunc.
iscntrl
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "iscntrl". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:cntrl:]]/" construct instead.
isdigit
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isdigit" (unlikely, but still possible). Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:digit:]]/" construct instead, or the "/\d/" construct.
isgraph
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isgraph". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:graph:]]/" construct instead.
islower
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "islower". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:lower:]]/" construct instead. Do not use "/[a-z]/".
isprint
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isprint". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:print:]]/" construct instead.
ispunct
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "ispunct". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:punct:]]/" construct instead.
isspace
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isspace". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:space:]]/" construct instead, or the "/\s/" construct. (Note that "/\s/" and "/[[:space:]]/" are slightly different in that "/[[:space:]]/" can normally match a vertical tab, while "/\s/" does not.)
isupper
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isupper". Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:upper:]]/" construct instead. Do not use "/[A-Z]/".
isxdigit
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isxdigit" (unlikely, but still possible). Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:xdigit:]]/" construct instead, or simply "/[0-9a-f]/i".
kill
This is identical to Perl's builtin "kill()" function for sending signals to processes (often to terminate them), see ``kill'' in perlfunc.
labs
(For returning absolute values of long integers.) labs() is C-specific, see ``abs'' in perlfunc instead.
ldexp
This is identical to the C function "ldexp()" for multiplying floating point numbers with powers of two.

        $x_quadrupled = POSIX::ldexp($x, 2);

ldiv
(For computing dividends of long integers.) ldiv() is C-specific, use "/" and "int()" instead.
link
This is identical to Perl's builtin "link()" function for creating hard links into files, see ``link'' in perlfunc.
localeconv
Get numeric formatting information. Returns a reference to a hash containing the current locale formatting values.

Here is how to query the database for the de (Deutsch or German) locale.

        $loc = POSIX::setlocale( &POSIX::LC_ALL, "de" );
        print "Locale = $loc\n";
        $lconv = POSIX::localeconv();
        print "decimal_point    = ", $lconv->{decimal_point},   "\n";
        print "thousands_sep    = ", $lconv->{thousands_sep},   "\n";
        print "grouping = ", $lconv->{grouping},        "\n";
        print "int_curr_symbol  = ", $lconv->{int_curr_symbol}, "\n";
        print "currency_symbol  = ", $lconv->{currency_symbol}, "\n";
        print "mon_decimal_point = ", $lconv->{mon_decimal_point}, "\n";
        print "mon_thousands_sep = ", $lconv->{mon_thousands_sep}, "\n";
        print "mon_grouping     = ", $lconv->{mon_grouping},    "\n";
        print "positive_sign    = ", $lconv->{positive_sign},   "\n";
        print "negative_sign    = ", $lconv->{negative_sign},   "\n";
        print "int_frac_digits  = ", $lconv->{int_frac_digits}, "\n";
        print "frac_digits      = ", $lconv->{frac_digits},     "\n";
        print "p_cs_precedes    = ", $lconv->{p_cs_precedes},   "\n";
        print "p_sep_by_space   = ", $lconv->{p_sep_by_space},  "\n";
        print "n_cs_precedes    = ", $lconv->{n_cs_precedes},   "\n";
        print "n_sep_by_space   = ", $lconv->{n_sep_by_space},  "\n";
        print "p_sign_posn      = ", $lconv->{p_sign_posn},     "\n";
        print "n_sign_posn      = ", $lconv->{n_sign_posn},     "\n";

localtime
This is identical to Perl's builtin "localtime()" function for converting seconds since the epoch to a date see ``localtime'' in perlfunc.
log
This is identical to Perl's builtin "log()" function, returning the natural (e-based) logarithm of the numerical argument, see ``log'' in perlfunc.
log10
This is identical to the C function "log10()", returning the 10-base logarithm of the numerical argument. You can also use

    sub log10 { log($_[0]) / log(10) }

or

    sub log10 { log($_[0]) / 2.30258509299405 }

or

    sub log10 { log($_[0]) * 0.434294481903252 }

longjmp
longjmp() is C-specific: use ``die'' in perlfunc instead.
lseek
Move the file's read/write position. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
        $off_t = POSIX::lseek( $fd, 0, &POSIX::SEEK_SET );

Returns "undef" on failure.

malloc
malloc() is C-specific. Perl does memory management transparently.
mblen
This is identical to the C function "mblen()". Perl does not have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.
mbstowcs
This is identical to the C function "mbstowcs()". Perl does not have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.
mbtowc
This is identical to the C function "mbtowc()". Perl does not have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.
memchr
memchr() is C-specific, see ``index'' in perlfunc instead.
memcmp
memcmp() is C-specific, use "eq" instead, see perlop.
memcpy
memcpy() is C-specific, use "=", see perlop, or see ``substr'' in perlfunc.
memmove
memmove() is C-specific, use "=", see perlop, or see ``substr'' in perlfunc.
memset
memset() is C-specific, use "x" instead, see perlop.
mkdir
This is identical to Perl's builtin "mkdir()" function for creating directories, see ``mkdir'' in perlfunc.
mkfifo
This is similar to the C function "mkfifo()" for creating FIFO special files.

        if (mkfifo($path, $mode)) { ....

Returns "undef" on failure. The $mode is similar to the mode of "mkdir()", see ``mkdir'' in perlfunc.

mktime
Convert date/time info to a calendar time.

Synopsis:

        mktime(sec, min, hour, mday, mon, year, wday = 0, yday = 0, isdst = 0)

The month ("mon"), weekday ("wday"), and yearday ("yday") begin at zero. I.e. January is 0, not 1; Sunday is 0, not 1; January 1st is 0, not 1. The year ("year") is given in years since 1900. I.e. The year 1995 is 95; the year 2001 is 101. Consult your system's "mktime()" manpage for details about these and the other arguments.

Calendar time for December 12, 1995, at 10:30 am.

        $time_t = POSIX::mktime( 0, 30, 10, 12, 11, 95 );
        print "Date = ", POSIX::ctime($time_t);

Returns "undef" on failure.

modf
Return the integral and fractional parts of a floating-point number.

        ($fractional, $integral) = POSIX::modf( 3.14 );

nice
This is similar to the C function "nice()", for changing the scheduling preference of the current process. Positive arguments mean more polite process, negative values more needy process. Normal user processes can only be more polite.

Returns "undef" on failure.

offsetof
offsetof() is C-specific, you probably want to see ``pack'' in perlfunc instead.
open
Open a file for reading for writing. This returns file descriptors, not Perl filehandles. Use "POSIX::close" to close the file.

Open a file read-only with mode 0666.

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo" );

Open a file for read and write.

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDWR );

Open a file for write, with truncation.

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_WRONLY | &POSIX::O_TRUNC );

Create a new file with mode 0640. Set up the file for writing.

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_CREAT | &POSIX::O_WRONLY, 0640 );

Returns "undef" on failure.

See also ``sysopen'' in perlfunc.

opendir
Open a directory for reading.

        $dir = POSIX::opendir( "/var" );
        @files = POSIX::readdir( $dir );
        POSIX::closedir( $dir );

Returns "undef" on failure.

pathconf
Retrieves the value of a configurable limit on a file or directory.

The following will determine the maximum length of the longest allowable pathname on the filesystem which holds "/var".

        $path_max = POSIX::pathconf( "/var", &POSIX::_PC_PATH_MAX );

Returns "undef" on failure.

pause
This is similar to the C function "pause()", which suspends the execution of the current process until a signal is received.

Returns "undef" on failure.

perror
This is identical to the C function "perror()", which outputs to the standard error stream the specified message followed by ``: '' and the current error string. Use the "warn()" function and the $! variable instead, see ``warn'' in perlfunc and ``$ERRNO'' in perlvar.
pipe
Create an interprocess channel. This returns file descriptors like those returned by "POSIX::open".

        my ($read, $write) = POSIX::pipe();
        POSIX::write( $write, "hello", 5 );
        POSIX::read( $read, $buf, 5 );

See also ``pipe'' in perlfunc.

pow
Computes $x raised to the power $exponent.

        $ret = POSIX::pow( $x, $exponent );

You can also use the "**" operator, see perlop.

printf
Formats and prints the specified arguments to STDOUT. See also ``printf'' in perlfunc.
putc
putc() is C-specific, see ``print'' in perlfunc instead.
putchar
putchar() is C-specific, see ``print'' in perlfunc instead.
puts
puts() is C-specific, see ``print'' in perlfunc instead.
qsort
qsort() is C-specific, see ``sort'' in perlfunc instead.
raise
Sends the specified signal to the current process. See also ``kill'' in perlfunc and the $$ in ``$PID'' in perlvar.
rand
"rand()" is non-portable, see ``rand'' in perlfunc instead.
read
Read from a file. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open". If the buffer $buf is not large enough for the read then Perl will extend it to make room for the request.

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
        $bytes = POSIX::read( $fd, $buf, 3 );

Returns "undef" on failure.

See also ``sysread'' in perlfunc.

readdir
This is identical to Perl's builtin "readdir()" function for reading directory entries, see ``readdir'' in perlfunc.
realloc
realloc() is C-specific. Perl does memory management transparently.
remove
This is identical to Perl's builtin "unlink()" function for removing files, see ``unlink'' in perlfunc.
rename
This is identical to Perl's builtin "rename()" function for renaming files, see ``rename'' in perlfunc.
rewind
Seeks to the beginning of the file.
rewinddir
This is identical to Perl's builtin "rewinddir()" function for rewinding directory entry streams, see ``rewinddir'' in perlfunc.
rmdir
This is identical to Perl's builtin "rmdir()" function for removing (empty) directories, see ``rmdir'' in perlfunc.
scanf
scanf() is C-specific, use <> and regular expressions instead, see perlre.
setgid
Sets the real group identifier and the effective group identifier for this process. Similar to assigning a value to the Perl's builtin $) variable, see ``$GID'' in perlvar, except that the latter will change only the real user identifier, and that the setgid() uses only a single numeric argument, as opposed to a space-separated list of numbers.
setjmp
"setjmp()" is C-specific: use "eval {}" instead, see ``eval'' in perlfunc.
setlocale
Modifies and queries program's locale. The following examples assume

        use POSIX qw(setlocale LC_ALL LC_CTYPE);

has been issued.

The following will set the traditional UNIX system locale behavior (the second argument "C").

        $loc = setlocale( LC_ALL, "C" );

The following will query the current LC_CTYPE category. (No second argument means 'query'.)

        $loc = setlocale( LC_CTYPE );

The following will set the LC_CTYPE behaviour according to the locale environment variables (the second argument ""). Please see your systems setlocale(3) documentation for the locale environment variables' meaning or consult perllocale.

        $loc = setlocale( LC_CTYPE, "" );

The following will set the LC_COLLATE behaviour to Argentinian Spanish. NOTE: The naming and availability of locales depends on your operating system. Please consult perllocale for how to find out which locales are available in your system.

        $loc = setlocale( LC_ALL, "es_AR.ISO8859-1" );

setpgid
This is similar to the C function "setpgid()" for setting the process group identifier of the current process.

Returns "undef" on failure.

setsid
This is identical to the C function "setsid()" for setting the session identifier of the current process.
setuid
Sets the real user identifier and the effective user identifier for this process. Similar to assigning a value to the Perl's builtin $< variable, see ``$UID'' in perlvar, except that the latter will change only the real user identifier.
sigaction
Detailed signal management. This uses "POSIX::SigAction" objects for the "action" and "oldaction" arguments. Consult your system's "sigaction" manpage for details.

Synopsis:

        sigaction(signal, action, oldaction = 0)

Returns "undef" on failure. The "signal" must be a number (like SIGHUP), not a string (like ``SIGHUP''), though Perl does try hard to understand you.

siglongjmp
siglongjmp() is C-specific: use ``die'' in perlfunc instead.
sigpending
Examine signals that are blocked and pending. This uses "POSIX::SigSet" objects for the "sigset" argument. Consult your system's "sigpending" manpage for details.

Synopsis:

        sigpending(sigset)

Returns "undef" on failure.

sigprocmask
Change and/or examine calling process's signal mask. This uses "POSIX::SigSet" objects for the "sigset" and "oldsigset" arguments. Consult your system's "sigprocmask" manpage for details.

Synopsis:

        sigprocmask(how, sigset, oldsigset = 0)

Returns "undef" on failure.

sigsetjmp
"sigsetjmp()" is C-specific: use "eval {}" instead, see ``eval'' in perlfunc.
sigsuspend
Install a signal mask and suspend process until signal arrives. This uses "POSIX::SigSet" objects for the "signal_mask" argument. Consult your system's "sigsuspend" manpage for details.

Synopsis:

        sigsuspend(signal_mask)

Returns "undef" on failure.

sin
This is identical to Perl's builtin "sin()" function for returning the sine of the numerical argument, see ``sin'' in perlfunc. See also Math::Trig.
sinh
This is identical to the C function "sinh()" for returning the hyperbolic sine of the numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.
sleep
This is functionally identical to Perl's builtin "sleep()" function for suspending the execution of the current for process for certain number of seconds, see ``sleep'' in perlfunc. There is one significant difference, however: "POSIX::sleep()" returns the number of unslept seconds, while the "CORE::sleep()" returns the number of slept seconds.
sprintf
This is similar to Perl's builtin "sprintf()" function for returning a string that has the arguments formatted as requested, see ``sprintf'' in perlfunc.
sqrt
This is identical to Perl's builtin "sqrt()" function. for returning the square root of the numerical argument, see ``sqrt'' in perlfunc.
srand
Give a seed the pseudorandom number generator, see ``srand'' in perlfunc.
sscanf
sscanf() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre.
stat
This is identical to Perl's builtin "stat()" function for returning information about files and directories.
strcat
strcat() is C-specific, use ".=" instead, see perlop.
strchr
strchr() is C-specific, see ``index'' in perlfunc instead.
strcmp
strcmp() is C-specific, use "eq" or "cmp" instead, see perlop.
strcoll
This is identical to the C function "strcoll()" for collating (comparing) strings transformed using the "strxfrm()" function. Not really needed since Perl can do this transparently, see perllocale.
strcpy
strcpy() is C-specific, use "=" instead, see perlop.
strcspn
strcspn() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre.
strerror
Returns the error string for the specified errno. Identical to the string form of the $!, see ``$ERRNO'' in perlvar.
strftime
Convert date and time information to string. Returns the string.

Synopsis:

        strftime(fmt, sec, min, hour, mday, mon, year, wday = -1, yday = -1, isdst = -1)

The month ("mon"), weekday ("wday"), and yearday ("yday") begin at zero. I.e. January is 0, not 1; Sunday is 0, not 1; January 1st is 0, not 1. The year ("year") is given in years since 1900. I.e., the year 1995 is 95; the year 2001 is 101. Consult your system's "strftime()" manpage for details about these and the other arguments.

If you want your code to be portable, your format ("fmt") argument should use only the conversion specifiers defined by the ANSI C standard (C89, to play safe). These are "aAbBcdHIjmMpSUwWxXyYZ%". But even then, the results of some of the conversion specifiers are non-portable. For example, the specifiers "aAbBcpZ" change according to the locale settings of the user, and both how to set locales (the locale names) and what output to expect are non-standard. The specifier "c" changes according to the timezone settings of the user and the timezone computation rules of the operating system. The "Z" specifier is notoriously unportable since the names of timezones are non-standard. Sticking to the numeric specifiers is the safest route.

The given arguments are made consistent as though by calling "mktime()" before calling your system's "strftime()" function, except that the "isdst" value is not affected.

The string for Tuesday, December 12, 1995.

        $str = POSIX::strftime( "%A, %B %d, %Y", 0, 0, 0, 12, 11, 95, 2 );
        print "$str\n";

strlen
strlen() is C-specific, use "length()" instead, see ``length'' in perlfunc.
strncat
strncat() is C-specific, use ".=" instead, see perlop.
strncmp
strncmp() is C-specific, use "eq" instead, see perlop.
strncpy
strncpy() is C-specific, use "=" instead, see perlop.
strpbrk
strpbrk() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre.
strrchr
strrchr() is C-specific, see ``rindex'' in perlfunc instead.
strspn
strspn() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre.
strstr
This is identical to Perl's builtin "index()" function, see ``index'' in perlfunc.
strtod
String to double translation. Returns the parsed number and the number of characters in the unparsed portion of the string. Truly POSIX-compliant systems set $! ($ERRNO) to indicate a translation error, so clear $! before calling strtod. However, non-POSIX systems may not check for overflow, and therefore will never set $!.

strtod should respect any POSIX setlocale() settings.

To parse a string $str as a floating point number use

    $! = 0;
    ($num, $n_unparsed) = POSIX::strtod($str);

The second returned item and $! can be used to check for valid input:

    if (($str eq '') || ($n_unparsed != 0) || $!) {
        die "Non-numeric input $str" . ($! ? ": $!\n" : "\n");
    }

When called in a scalar context strtod returns the parsed number.

strtok
strtok() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre, or ``split'' in perlfunc.
strtol
String to (long) integer translation. Returns the parsed number and the number of characters in the unparsed portion of the string. Truly POSIX-compliant systems set $! ($ERRNO) to indicate a translation error, so clear $! before calling strtol. However, non-POSIX systems may not check for overflow, and therefore will never set $!.

strtol should respect any POSIX setlocale() settings.

To parse a string $str as a number in some base $base use

    $! = 0;
    ($num, $n_unparsed) = POSIX::strtol($str, $base);

The base should be zero or between 2 and 36, inclusive. When the base is zero or omitted strtol will use the string itself to determine the base: a leading ``0x'' or ``0X'' means hexadecimal; a leading ``0'' means octal; any other leading characters mean decimal. Thus, ``1234'' is parsed as a decimal number, ``01234'' as an octal number, and ``0x1234'' as a hexadecimal number.

The second returned item and $! can be used to check for valid input:

    if (($str eq '') || ($n_unparsed != 0) || !$!) {
        die "Non-numeric input $str" . $! ? ": $!\n" : "\n";
    }

When called in a scalar context strtol returns the parsed number.

strtoul
String to unsigned (long) integer translation. strtoul() is identical to strtol() except that strtoul() only parses unsigned integers. See ``strtol'' for details.

Note: Some vendors supply strtod() and strtol() but not strtoul(). Other vendors that do supply strtoul() parse ``-1'' as a valid value.

strxfrm
String transformation. Returns the transformed string.

        $dst = POSIX::strxfrm( $src );

Used in conjunction with the "strcoll()" function, see ``strcoll''.

Not really needed since Perl can do this transparently, see perllocale.

sysconf
Retrieves values of system configurable variables.

The following will get the machine's clock speed.

        $clock_ticks = POSIX::sysconf( &POSIX::_SC_CLK_TCK );

Returns "undef" on failure.

system
This is identical to Perl's builtin "system()" function, see ``system'' in perlfunc.
tan
This is identical to the C function "tan()", returning the tangent of the numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.
tanh
This is identical to the C function "tanh()", returning the hyperbolic tangent of the numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.
tcdrain
This is similar to the C function "tcdrain()" for draining the output queue of its argument stream.

Returns "undef" on failure.

tcflow
This is similar to the C function "tcflow()" for controlling the flow of its argument stream.

Returns "undef" on failure.

tcflush
This is similar to the C function "tcflush()" for flushing the I/O buffers of its argument stream.

Returns "undef" on failure.

tcgetpgrp
This is identical to the C function "tcgetpgrp()" for returning the process group identifier of the foreground process group of the controlling terminal.
tcsendbreak
This is similar to the C function "tcsendbreak()" for sending a break on its argument stream.

Returns "undef" on failure.

tcsetpgrp
This is similar to the C function "tcsetpgrp()" for setting the process group identifier of the foreground process group of the controlling terminal.

Returns "undef" on failure.

time
This is identical to Perl's builtin "time()" function for returning the number of seconds since the epoch (whatever it is for the system), see ``time'' in perlfunc.
times
The times() function returns elapsed realtime since some point in the past (such as system startup), user and system times for this process, and user and system times used by child processes. All times are returned in clock ticks.

    ($realtime, $user, $system, $cuser, $csystem) = POSIX::times();

Note: Perl's builtin "times()" function returns four values, measured in seconds.

tmpfile
Use method "IO::File::new_tmpfile()" instead, or see File::Temp.
tmpnam
Returns a name for a temporary file.

        $tmpfile = POSIX::tmpnam();

For security reasons, which are probably detailed in your system's documentation for the C library tmpnam() function, this interface should not be used; instead see File::Temp.

tolower
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Consider using the "lc()" function, see ``lc'' in perlfunc, or the equivalent "\L" operator inside doublequotish strings.
toupper
This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole string. Consider using the "uc()" function, see ``uc'' in perlfunc, or the equivalent "\U" operator inside doublequotish strings.
ttyname
This is identical to the C function "ttyname()" for returning the name of the current terminal.
tzname
Retrieves the time conversion information from the "tzname" variable.

        POSIX::tzset();
        ($std, $dst) = POSIX::tzname();

tzset
This is identical to the C function "tzset()" for setting the current timezone based on the environment variable "TZ", to be used by "ctime()", "localtime()", "mktime()", and "strftime()" functions.
umask
This is identical to Perl's builtin "umask()" function for setting (and querying) the file creation permission mask, see ``umask'' in perlfunc.
uname
Get name of current operating system.

        ($sysname, $nodename, $release, $version, $machine) = POSIX::uname();

Note that the actual meanings of the various fields are not that well standardized, do not expect any great portability. The $sysname might be the name of the operating system, the $nodename might be the name of the host, the $release might be the (major) release number of the operating system, the $version might be the (minor) release number of the operating system, and the $machine might be a hardware identifier. Maybe.

ungetc
Use method "IO::Handle::ungetc()" instead.
unlink
This is identical to Perl's builtin "unlink()" function for removing files, see ``unlink'' in perlfunc.
utime
This is identical to Perl's builtin "utime()" function for changing the time stamps of files and directories, see ``utime'' in perlfunc.
vfprintf
vfprintf() is C-specific, see ``printf'' in perlfunc instead.
vprintf
vprintf() is C-specific, see ``printf'' in perlfunc instead.
vsprintf
vsprintf() is C-specific, see ``sprintf'' in perlfunc instead.
wait
This is identical to Perl's builtin "wait()" function, see ``wait'' in perlfunc.
waitpid
Wait for a child process to change state. This is identical to Perl's builtin "waitpid()" function, see ``waitpid'' in perlfunc.

        $pid = POSIX::waitpid( -1, POSIX::WNOHANG );
        print "status = ", ($? / 256), "\n";

wcstombs
This is identical to the C function "wcstombs()". Perl does not have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.
wctomb
This is identical to the C function "wctomb()". Perl does not have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.
write
Write to a file. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

        $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_WRONLY );
        $buf = "hello";
        $bytes = POSIX::write( $b, $buf, 5 );

Returns "undef" on failure.

See also ``syswrite'' in perlfunc.

 

CLASSES

 

POSIX::SigAction

new
Creates a new "POSIX::SigAction" object which corresponds to the C "struct sigaction". This object will be destroyed automatically when it is no longer needed. The first parameter is the fully-qualified name of a sub which is a signal-handler. The second parameter is a "POSIX::SigSet" object, it defaults to the empty set. The third parameter contains the "sa_flags", it defaults to 0.

        $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new(SIGINT, SIGQUIT);
        $sigaction = POSIX::SigAction->new( \&main::handler, $sigset, &POSIX::SA_NOCLDSTOP );

This "POSIX::SigAction" object is intended for use with the "POSIX::sigaction()" function.

handler
mask
flags
accessor functions to get/set the values of a SigAction object.

        $sigset = $sigaction->mask;
        $sigaction->flags(&POSIX::SA_RESTART);

safe
accessor function for the ``safe signals'' flag of a SigAction object; see perlipc for general information on safe (a.k.a. ``deferred'') signals. If you wish to handle a signal safely, use this accessor to set the ``safe'' flag in the "POSIX::SigAction" object:

        $sigaction->safe(1);

You may also examine the ``safe'' flag on the output action object which is filled in when given as the third parameter to "POSIX::sigaction()":

        sigaction(SIGINT, $new_action, $old_action);
        if ($old_action->safe) {
            # previous SIGINT handler used safe signals
        }

 

POSIX::SigSet

new
Create a new SigSet object. This object will be destroyed automatically when it is no longer needed. Arguments may be supplied to initialize the set.

Create an empty set.

        $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new;

Create a set with SIGUSR1.

        $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new( &POSIX::SIGUSR1 );

addset
Add a signal to a SigSet object.

        $sigset->addset( &POSIX::SIGUSR2 );

Returns "undef" on failure.

delset
Remove a signal from the SigSet object.

        $sigset->delset( &POSIX::SIGUSR2 );

Returns "undef" on failure.

emptyset
Initialize the SigSet object to be empty.

        $sigset->emptyset();

Returns "undef" on failure.

fillset
Initialize the SigSet object to include all signals.

        $sigset->fillset();

Returns "undef" on failure.

ismember
Tests the SigSet object to see if it contains a specific signal.

        if( $sigset->ismember( &POSIX::SIGUSR1 ) ){
                print "contains SIGUSR1\n";
        }

 

POSIX::Termios

new
Create a new Termios object. This object will be destroyed automatically when it is no longer needed. A Termios object corresponds to the termios C struct. new() mallocs a new one, getattr() fills it from a file descriptor, and setattr() sets a file descriptor's parameters to match Termios' contents.

        $termios = POSIX::Termios->new;

getattr
Get terminal control attributes.

Obtain the attributes for stdin.

        $termios->getattr()

Obtain the attributes for stdout.

        $termios->getattr( 1 )

Returns "undef" on failure.

getcc
Retrieve a value from the c_cc field of a termios object. The c_cc field is an array so an index must be specified.

        $c_cc[1] = $termios->getcc(1);

getcflag
Retrieve the c_cflag field of a termios object.

        $c_cflag = $termios->getcflag;

getiflag
Retrieve the c_iflag field of a termios object.

        $c_iflag = $termios->getiflag;

getispeed
Retrieve the input baud rate.

        $ispeed = $termios->getispeed;

getlflag
Retrieve the c_lflag field of a termios object.

        $c_lflag = $termios->getlflag;

getoflag
Retrieve the c_oflag field of a termios object.

        $c_oflag = $termios->getoflag;

getospeed
Retrieve the output baud rate.

        $ospeed = $termios->getospeed;

setattr
Set terminal control attributes.

Set attributes immediately for stdout.

        $termios->setattr( 1, &POSIX::TCSANOW );

Returns "undef" on failure.

setcc
Set a value in the c_cc field of a termios object. The c_cc field is an array so an index must be specified.

        $termios->setcc( &POSIX::VEOF, 1 );

setcflag
Set the c_cflag field of a termios object.

        $termios->setcflag( $c_cflag | &POSIX::CLOCAL );

setiflag
Set the c_iflag field of a termios object.

        $termios->setiflag( $c_iflag | &POSIX::BRKINT );

setispeed
Set the input baud rate.

        $termios->setispeed( &POSIX::B9600 );

Returns "undef" on failure.

setlflag
Set the c_lflag field of a termios object.

        $termios->setlflag( $c_lflag | &POSIX::ECHO );

setoflag
Set the c_oflag field of a termios object.

        $termios->setoflag( $c_oflag | &POSIX::OPOST );

setospeed
Set the output baud rate.

        $termios->setospeed( &POSIX::B9600 );

Returns "undef" on failure.

Baud rate values
B38400 B75 B200 B134 B300 B1800 B150 B0 B19200 B1200 B9600 B600 B4800 B50 B2400 B110
Terminal interface values
TCSADRAIN TCSANOW TCOON TCIOFLUSH TCOFLUSH TCION TCIFLUSH TCSAFLUSH TCIOFF TCOOFF
c_cc field values
VEOF VEOL VERASE VINTR VKILL VQUIT VSUSP VSTART VSTOP VMIN VTIME NCCS
c_cflag field values
CLOCAL CREAD CSIZE CS5 CS6 CS7 CS8 CSTOPB HUPCL PARENB PARODD
c_iflag field values
BRKINT ICRNL IGNBRK IGNCR IGNPAR INLCR INPCK ISTRIP IXOFF IXON PARMRK
c_lflag field values
ECHO ECHOE ECHOK ECHONL ICANON IEXTEN ISIG NOFLSH TOSTOP
c_oflag field values
OPOST
 

PATHNAME CONSTANTS

Constants
_PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED _PC_LINK_MAX _PC_MAX_CANON _PC_MAX_INPUT _PC_NAME_MAX _PC_NO_TRUNC _PC_PATH_MAX _PC_PIPE_BUF _PC_VDISABLE
 

POSIX CONSTANTS

Constants
_POSIX_ARG_MAX _POSIX_CHILD_MAX _POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED _POSIX_JOB_CONTROL _POSIX_LINK_MAX _POSIX_MAX_CANON _POSIX_MAX_INPUT _POSIX_NAME_MAX _POSIX_NGROUPS_MAX _POSIX_NO_TRUNC _POSIX_OPEN_MAX _POSIX_PATH_MAX _POSIX_PIPE_BUF _POSIX_SAVED_IDS _POSIX_SSIZE_MAX _POSIX_STREAM_MAX _POSIX_TZNAME_MAX _POSIX_VDISABLE _POSIX_VERSION
 

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

Constants
_SC_ARG_MAX _SC_CHILD_MAX _SC_CLK_TCK _SC_JOB_CONTROL _SC_NGROUPS_MAX _SC_OPEN_MAX _SC_PAGESIZE _SC_SAVED_IDS _SC_STREAM_MAX _SC_TZNAME_MAX _SC_VERSION
 

ERRNO

Constants
E2BIG EACCES EADDRINUSE EADDRNOTAVAIL EAFNOSUPPORT EAGAIN EALREADY EBADF EBUSY ECHILD ECONNABORTED ECONNREFUSED ECONNRESET EDEADLK EDESTADDRREQ EDOM EDQUOT EEXIST EFAULT EFBIG EHOSTDOWN EHOSTUNREACH EINPROGRESS EINTR EINVAL EIO EISCONN EISDIR ELOOP EMFILE EMLINK EMSGSIZE ENAMETOOLONG ENETDOWN ENETRESET ENETUNREACH ENFILE ENOBUFS ENODEV ENOENT ENOEXEC ENOLCK ENOMEM ENOPROTOOPT ENOSPC ENOSYS ENOTBLK ENOTCONN ENOTDIR ENOTEMPTY ENOTSOCK ENOTTY ENXIO EOPNOTSUPP EPERM EPFNOSUPPORT EPIPE EPROCLIM EPROTONOSUPPORT EPROTOTYPE ERANGE EREMOTE ERESTART EROFS ESHUTDOWN ESOCKTNOSUPPORT ESPIPE ESRCH ESTALE ETIMEDOUT ETOOMANYREFS ETXTBSY EUSERS EWOULDBLOCK EXDEV
 

FCNTL

Constants
FD_CLOEXEC F_DUPFD F_GETFD F_GETFL F_GETLK F_OK F_RDLCK F_SETFD F_SETFL F_SETLK F_SETLKW F_UNLCK F_WRLCK O_ACCMODE O_APPEND O_CREAT O_EXCL O_NOCTTY O_NONBLOCK O_RDONLY O_RDWR O_TRUNC O_WRONLY
 

FLOAT

Constants
DBL_DIG DBL_EPSILON DBL_MANT_DIG DBL_MAX DBL_MAX_10_EXP DBL_MAX_EXP DBL_MIN DBL_MIN_10_EXP DBL_MIN_EXP FLT_DIG FLT_EPSILON FLT_MANT_DIG FLT_MAX FLT_MAX_10_EXP FLT_MAX_EXP FLT_MIN FLT_MIN_10_EXP FLT_MIN_EXP FLT_RADIX FLT_ROUNDS LDBL_DIG LDBL_EPSILON LDBL_MANT_DIG LDBL_MAX LDBL_MAX_10_EXP LDBL_MAX_EXP LDBL_MIN LDBL_MIN_10_EXP LDBL_MIN_EXP
 

LIMITS

Constants
ARG_MAX CHAR_BIT CHAR_MAX CHAR_MIN CHILD_MAX INT_MAX INT_MIN LINK_MAX LONG_MAX LONG_MIN MAX_CANON MAX_INPUT MB_LEN_MAX NAME_MAX NGROUPS_MAX OPEN_MAX PATH_MAX PIPE_BUF SCHAR_MAX SCHAR_MIN SHRT_MAX SHRT_MIN SSIZE_MAX STREAM_MAX TZNAME_MAX UCHAR_MAX UINT_MAX ULONG_MAX USHRT_MAX
 

LOCALE

Constants
LC_ALL LC_COLLATE LC_CTYPE LC_MONETARY LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME
 

MATH

Constants
HUGE_VAL
 

SIGNAL

Constants
SA_NOCLDSTOP SA_NOCLDWAIT SA_NODEFER SA_ONSTACK SA_RESETHAND SA_RESTART SA_SIGINFO SIGABRT SIGALRM SIGCHLD SIGCONT SIGFPE SIGHUP SIGILL SIGINT SIGKILL SIGPIPE SIGQUIT SIGSEGV SIGSTOP SIGTERM SIGTSTP SIGTTIN SIGTTOU SIGUSR1 SIGUSR2 SIG_BLOCK SIG_DFL SIG_ERR SIG_IGN SIG_SETMASK SIG_UNBLOCK
 

STAT

Constants
S_IRGRP S_IROTH S_IRUSR S_IRWXG S_IRWXO S_IRWXU S_ISGID S_ISUID S_IWGRP S_IWOTH S_IWUSR S_IXGRP S_IXOTH S_IXUSR
Macros
S_ISBLK S_ISCHR S_ISDIR S_ISFIFO S_ISREG
 

STDLIB

Constants
EXIT_FAILURE EXIT_SUCCESS MB_CUR_MAX RAND_MAX
 

STDIO

Constants
BUFSIZ EOF FILENAME_MAX L_ctermid L_cuserid L_tmpname TMP_MAX
 

TIME

Constants
CLK_TCK CLOCKS_PER_SEC
 

UNISTD

Constants
R_OK SEEK_CUR SEEK_END SEEK_SET STDIN_FILENO STDOUT_FILENO STDERR_FILENO W_OK X_OK
 

WAIT

Constants
WNOHANG WUNTRACED
WNOHANG
Do not suspend the calling process until a child process changes state but instead return immediately.
WUNTRACED
Catch stopped child processes.
Macros
WIFEXITED WEXITSTATUS WIFSIGNALED WTERMSIG WIFSTOPPED WSTOPSIG
WIFEXITED
WIFEXITED($?) returns true if the child process exited normally ("exit()" or by falling off the end of "main()")
WEXITSTATUS
WEXITSTATUS($?) returns the normal exit status of the child process (only meaningful if WIFEXITED($?) is true)
WIFSIGNALED
WIFSIGNALED($?) returns true if the child process terminated because of a signal
WTERMSIG
WTERMSIG($?) returns the signal the child process terminated for (only meaningful if WIFSIGNALED($?) is true)
WIFSTOPPED
WIFSTOPPED($?) returns true if the child process is currently stopped (can happen only if you specified the WUNTRACED flag to waitpid())
WSTOPSIG
WSTOPSIG($?) returns the signal the child process was stopped for (only meaningful if WIFSTOPPED($?) is true)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
CAVEATS
FUNCTIONS
CLASSES
POSIX::SigAction
POSIX::SigSet
POSIX::Termios
PATHNAME CONSTANTS
POSIX CONSTANTS
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
ERRNO
FCNTL
FLOAT
LIMITS
LOCALE
MATH
SIGNAL
STAT
STDLIB
STDIO
TIME
UNISTD
WAIT