# COMPLEX

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (7)Updated: 2002-07-28

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## NAME

complex - basics of complex mathematics## SYNOPSIS

**#include <complex.h>**

## DESCRIPTION

Complex numbers are numbers of the form z = a+b*i, where a and b are real numbers and i = sqrt(-1), so that i*i = -1.There are other ways to represent that number. The pair (a,b) of real numbers may be viewed as a point in the plane, given by X- and Y-coordinates. This same point may also be described by giving the pair of real numbers (r,phi), where r is the distance to the origin O, and phi the angle between the X-axis and the line Oz. Now z = r*exp(i*phi) = r*(cos(phi)+i*sin(phi)).

The basic operations are defined on z = a+b*i and w = c+d*i as:

**addition: z+w = (a+c) + (b+d)*i****multiplication: z*w = (a*c - b*d) + (a*d + b*c)*i****division: z/w = ((a*c + b*d)/(c*c + d*d)) + ((b*c - a*d)/(c*c + d*d))*i**

Nearly all math function have a complex counterpart but there are some complex only functions.

## EXAMPLE

Your C-compiler can work with complex numbers if it supports the C99 standard. Link with*-lm*. The imaginary unit is represented by I.

/* check that exp(i * pi) == -1 */ #include <math.h> /* for atan */ #include <complex.h> int main(void) { double pi = 4 * atan(1.0); complex z = cexp(I * pi); printf("%f + %f * i\n", creal(z), cimag(z)); }

## SEE ALSO

**cabs**(3),

**carg**(3),

**cexp**(3),

**cimag**(3),

**creal**(3)