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DDP

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (7)
Updated: 1999-05-01
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

ddp - Linux AppleTalk protocol implementation  

SYNOPSIS

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netatalk/at.h>

ddp_socket = socket(PF_APPLETALK, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);
raw_socket = socket(PF_APPLETALK, SOCK_RAW, protocol);  

DESCRIPTION

Linux implements the Appletalk protocols described in Inside Appletalk. Only the DDP layer and AARP are present in the kernel. They are designed to be used via the netatalk protocol libraries. This page documents the interface for those who wish or need to use the DDP layer directly.

The communication between Appletalk and the user program works using a BSD-compatible socket interface. For more information on sockets, see socket(7).

An AppleTalk socket is created by calling the socket(2) function with a PF_APPLETALK socket family argument. Valid socket types are SOCK_DGRAM to open a ddp socket or SOCK_RAW to open a raw socket. protocol is the Appletalk protocol to be received or sent. For SOCK_RAW you must specify ATPROTO_DDP.

Raw sockets may be only opened by a process with effective user ID 0 or when the process has the CAP_NET_RAW capability.  

Address Format

An Appletalk socket address is defined as a combination of a network number, a node number, and a port number.

struct at_addr {
    u_short        s_net;
    u_char         s_node;
};

struct sockaddr_atalk {
    sa_family_t    sat_family;    /* address family */
    u_char         sat_port;      /* port */
    struct at_addr sat_addr;      /* net/node */
};

sat_family is always set to AF_APPLETALK. sat_port contains the port. The port numbers below 129 are known as reserved ports. Only processes with the effective user ID 0 or the CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE capability may bind(2) to these sockets. sat_addr is the host address. The net member of struct at_addr contains the host network in network byte order. The value of AT_ANYNET is a wildcard and also implies lqthis network.rq The node member of struct at_addr contains the host node number. The value of AT_ANYNODE is a wildcard and also implies lqthis node.rq The value of ATADDR_BCAST is a link local broadcast address.  

Socket Options

No protocol-specific socket options are supported.  

Sysctls

IP supports a sysctl interface to configure some global AppleTalk parameters. The sysctls can be accessed by reading or writing the /proc/sys/net/atalk/* files or with the sysctl(2) interface.
aarp-expiry-time
The time interval (in seconds) before an AARP cache entry expires.
aarp-resolve-time
The time interval (in seconds) before an AARP cache entry is resolved.
aarp-retransmit-limit
The number of retransmissions of an AARP query before the node is declared dead.
aarp-tick-time
The timer rate (in seconds) for the timer driving AARP.

The default values match the specification and should never need to be changed.  

Ioctls

All ioctls described in socket(7) apply to ddp.  

ERRORS

ENOTCONN
The operation is only defined on a connected socket, but the socket wasn't connected.
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
EMSGSIZE
Datagram is bigger than the DDP MTU.
EACCES
The user tried to execute an operation without the necessary permissions. These include sending to a broadcast address without having the broadcast flag set, and trying to bind to a reserved port without effective user ID 0 or CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE.
EADDRINUSE
Tried to bind to an address already in use.
ENOMEM and ENOBUFS
Not enough memory available.
ENOPROTOOPT and EOPNOTSUPP
Invalid socket option passed.
EPERM
User doesn't have permission to set high priority, make a configuration change, or send signals to the requested process or group,
EADDRNOTAVAIL
A non-existent interface was requested or the requested source address was not local.
EAGAIN
Operation on a nonblocking socket would block.
ESOCKTNOSUPPORT
The socket was unconfigured, or an unknown socket type was requested.
EISCONN
connect(2) was called on an already connected socket.
EALREADY
A connection operation on a non-blocking socket is already in progress.
ECONNABORTED
A connection was closed during an accept(2).
EPIPE
The connection was unexpectedly closed or shut down by the other end.
ENOENT
SIOCGSTAMP was called on a socket where no packet arrived.
EHOSTUNREACH
No routing table entry matches the destination address.
ENODEV
Network device not available or not capable of sending IP.
ENOPKG
A kernel subsystem was not configured.
 

VERSIONS

Appletalk is supported by Linux 2.0 or higher. The sysctl interface is new in Linux 2.2.  

NOTES

Be very careful with the SO_BROADCAST option - it is not privileged in Linux. It is easy to overload the network with careless sending to broadcast addresses.  

Compatibility

The basic AppleTalk socket interface is compatible with netatalk on BSD-derived systems. Many BSD systems fail to check SO_BROADCAST when sending broadcast frames; this can lead to compatibility problems.

The raw socket mode is unique to Linux and exists to support the alternative CAP package and AppleTalk monitoring tools more easily.  

BUGS

There are too many inconsistent error values.

The ioctls used to configure routing tables, devices, AARP tables and other devices are not yet described.  

SEE ALSO

recvmsg(2), sendmsg(2), capabilities(7), socket(7)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Address Format
Socket Options
Sysctls
Ioctls
ERRORS
VERSIONS
NOTES
Compatibility
BUGS
SEE ALSO




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