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SVIPC

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (7)
Updated: 1993-11-01
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

svipc - System V interprocess communication mechanisms  

SYNOPSIS

# include <sys/types.h>
# include <sys/ipc.h>
# include <sys/msg.h>
# include <sys/sem.h>
# include <sys/shm.h>
 

DESCRIPTION

This manual page refers to the Linux implementation of the System V interprocess communication mechanisms: message queues, semaphore sets, and shared memory segments. In the following, the word resource means an instantiation of one among such mechanisms.  

Resource Access Permissions

For each resource, the system uses a common structure of type struct ipc_perm to store information needed in determining permissions to perform an ipc operation. The ipc_perm structure, defined by the <sys/ipc.h> system header file, includes the following members:

       uid_t cuid;      /* creator user ID */

       gid_t cgid;      /* creator group ID */

       uid_t uid;       /* owner user ID */

       gid_t gid;       /* owner group ID */

       ushort mode;     /* r/w permissions */

The mode member of the ipc_perm structure defines, with its lower 9 bits, the access permissions to the resource for a process executing an ipc system call. The permissions are interpreted as follows:

        0400    Read by user.
        0200    Write by user.

        0040    Read by group.
        0020    Write by group.

        0004    Read by others.
        0002    Write by others.

Bits 0100, 0010, and 0001 (the execute bits) are unused by the system. Furthermore, "write" effectively means "alter" for a semaphore set.

The same system header file also defines the following symbolic constants:

IPC_CREAT
Create entry if key doesn't exist.
IPC_EXCL
Fail if key exists.
IPC_NOWAIT
Error if request must wait.
IPC_PRIVATE
Private key.
IPC_RMID
Remove resource.
IPC_SET
Set resource options.
IPC_STAT
Get resource options.

Note that IPC_PRIVATE is a key_t type, while all the other symbolic constants are flag fields and can be OR'ed into an int type variable.  

Message Queues

A message queue is uniquely identified by a positive integer (its msqid) and has an associated data structure of type struct msqid_ds, defined in <sys/msg.h>, containing the following members:

       struct ipc_perm msg_perm;
       msgqnum_t msg_qnum;      /* no of messages on queue */

       msglen_t msg_qbytes;     /* bytes max on a queue */

       pid_t msg_lspid;         /* PID of last msgsnd(2) call */

       pid_t msg_lrpid;         /* PID of last msgrcv(2) call */

       time_t msg_stime;        /* last msgsnd(2) time */

       time_t msg_rtime;        /* last msgrcv(2) time */

       time_t msg_ctime;        /* last change time */

msg_perm
ipc_perm structure that specifies the access permissions on the message queue.
msg_qnum
Number of messages currently on the message queue.
msg_qbytes
Maximum number of bytes of message text allowed on the message queue.
msg_lspid
ID of the process that performed the last msgsnd(2) system call.
msg_lrpid
ID of the process that performed the last msgrcv(2) system call.
msg_stime
Time of the last msgsnd(2) system call.
msg_rtime
Time of the last msgcv(2) system call.
msg_ctime
Time of the last system call that changed a member of the msqid_ds structure.
 

Semaphore Sets

A semaphore set is uniquely identified by a positive integer (its semid) and has an associated data structure of type struct semid_ds, defined in <sys/sem.h>, containing the following members:

       struct ipc_perm sem_perm;
       time_t sem_otime;        /* last operation time */

       time_t sem_ctime;        /* last change time */

       ulong sem_nsems;         /* count of sems in set */

sem_perm
ipc_perm structure that specifies the access permissions on the semaphore set.
sem_otime
Time of last semop(2) system call.
sem_ctime
Time of last semctl(2) system call that changed a member of the above structure or of one semaphore belonging to the set.
sem_nsems
Number of semaphores in the set. Each semaphore of the set is referenced by a non-negative integer ranging from 0 to sem_nsems-1.

A semaphore is a data structure of type struct sem containing the following members:

       int semval;      /* semaphore value */

       int sempid;      /* PID for last operation */

semval
Semaphore value: a non-negative integer.
sempid
ID of the last process that performed a semaphore operation on this semaphore.
 

Shared Memory Segments

A shared memory segment is uniquely identified by a positive integer (its shmid) and has an associated data structure of type struct shmid_ds, defined in <sys/shm.h>, containing the following members:

       struct ipc_perm shm_perm;
       size_t shm_segsz;        /* size of segment */

       pid_t shm_cpid;  /* PID of creator */

       pid_t shm_lpid;  /* PID, last operation */

       shmatt_t shm_nattch;     /* no. of current attaches */

       time_t shm_atime;        /* time of last attach */

       time_t shm_dtime;        /* time of last detach */

       time_t shm_ctime;        /* time of last change */

shm_perm
ipc_perm structure that specifies the access permissions on the shared memory segment.
shm_segsz
Size in bytes of the shared memory segment.
shm_cpid
ID of the process that created the shared memory segment.
shm_lpid
ID of the last process that executed a shmat(2) or shmdt(2) system call.
shm_nattch
Number of current alive attaches for this shared memory segment.
shm_atime
Time of the last shmat(2) system call.
shm_dtime
Time of the last shmdt(2) system call.
shm_ctime
Time of the last shmctl(2) system call that changed shmid_ds.
 

SEE ALSO

msgctl(2), msgget(2), msgrcv(2), msgsnd(2), semctl(2), semget(2), semop(2), shmat(2), shmctl(2), shmdt(2), shmget(2), ftok(3)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Resource Access Permissions
Message Queues
Semaphore Sets
Shared Memory Segments
SEE ALSO




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